Thursday, September 3, 2020
When, over the span of human occasions, it gets important for one understudy to break down the weight of unreasonable and superfluous work, and to accept, among the forces of the earth to which the laws of nature entitle them, the privilege to opportunity of self-assertive occupied work necessitates that they should express the reasons which instigate them to the disintegration. We hold these certainties to be obvious: that understudies are normal by the law and society to go to class so as to set them up for the world and their future professions. That school they are relied upon to finish the work appointed to them. That the work doled out in school is expected to better the understudies in their investigation of that specific subject. Yet, when this work is proposed to be valuable is over the top to such an extent that it is really hindering, it is the privilege and the obligation of the understudies to stand up and proclaim this blemish in the educational system. Such has been the patient toleration of understudies distressed by the schoolwork doled out in AP classes. To demonstrate this, let realities be submitted to a real to life world. It has made me lose endless long stretches of rest, in this way making me be less mindful, keeping me from arriving at my maximum capacity in school, which it precisely what it is implied not to do. It has dismissed the way that I have numerous different burdens burdening me and purposely adds to it hugely. It has denied me of most of my spare time outside of school. It has kept me from finishing the aggregate of my schoolwork pretty much each and every day, influencing my evaluations and my general GPA. It has constrained me to think increasingly about the base measure of work I have to finish than the genuine subject itself. It has shielded me from finishing the undertakings I am liable for at home. A framework that is the reason for every one of these results recorded is definitely not an even minded framework, and subsequently the understudies reserve an option to request change for the prosperity of their future. We point out the instructors who appoint such schoolwork. We have on many occasions argued for instructors to diminish the measure of schoolwork they relegate, with substantial explanations behind doing as such. However they ignore us and relegate inordinate and superfluous schoolwork. They also have been hard of hearing to the voice of equity and of levelheadedness. In this manner, until there is transform, we the understudies proclaim total partition from AP schoolwork, and the instructors that allocate it also. We, in this manner, the delegates of things to come of our reality, the understudies, by the authority of the privilege to our own future, announce the total and all out disintegration of exorbitant and superfluous AP schoolwork. We the understudies reserve the option to the opportunity of such work by the way that we decide the future and we have an obligation to ensure it.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Indication of the Beaver Paper I read The Sign of the Beaver by Elizabeth George Speare. The class was authentic fiction and Matt, the fundamental character, was an extremely fearless, solid, charitable multi year old kid who had earthy colored hair and was normal tallness. What I respect about matt is that he is a bold child who was extremely ready to forfeit himself to secure the lodge for his family. The story is about a family who lives in Quincy, Massachusetts when one rankling cold winter in 1768, they choose to move to Maine. In the spring Matt and his dad went to a region of land that he purchased and got it out from all the trees. They assembled a log lodge in a timberland. His dad would return to Quincy to get the remainder of his family and matt would remain without anyone else to ensure the lodge. He has heard tales about their being Indians in this piece of Maine and he has been instructed to be exceptionally gracious to them. His father disclosed to him he wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t go over one on the off chance that he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t trouble them. We will compose a custom paper test on Sign of the Beaver explicitly for you for just $16.38 $13.9/page Request now We will compose a custom exposition test on Sign of the Beaver explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer We will compose a custom paper test on Sign of the Beaver explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer He one day needed nectar from an apiary that he had seen two or three days back, so he proceeded to be pursued by a lot of honey bees. He was stung commonly yet at long last stumbled on a root and was tossed into a little lake. He was protected by the dreaded Indians, who at that point took him to his lodge and gave him medication (for his foot he had harmed when he stumbled) and new shoes. The following day the Indians returned to mattÃ¢â¬â¢s lodge and checked his leg. They said it was hyper-extended. He later in the book discovered that the Indians who had spared him were Attean and his granddad Sankis. Matt made an arrangement with Sankis that in the event that they instructed his abilities about the wild he would educate Attean better English. They concurred and Matt scholarly numerous abilities while Attean learned English or white man signs. Matt fortified with Attean and turned into his Indian sibling. Attean and Sankis then came one day and asked him a significant inquiry. They stated, would you like to accompany our clan to live with us and become an Indian. You should peruse the remainder of the book to discover what matt says. The topic of this book is that companions come in numerous shapes and sizes since when matt, a white kid, becomes companions with an Indian it is astounding. The creator picked this title in light of the fact that there are distinctive chasing grounds and AtteanÃ¢â¬â¢s tribeÃ¢â¬â¢s ground was the indication of the beaver. Another great title for this book would be The Boy and the Indian, since Matt, the kid, meets Attean, the Indian. On the off chance that I needed to pick between my Newberry respect book, The Sign of the Beaver, or my Newberry Medal book, Maniac Magee, I would pick the respect book since it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t befuddling like the decoration book and furthermore it had a lot of tension. I would offer The Hint of the Beaver a 8 since it kept your advantage the entire book and was an energizing book.
Friday, August 21, 2020
Nirma Case Study Essay Example of overcoming adversity Karsanbhai Khodidas Patel, the organizer of Rs. 2500 crore (US$ 500 million) Ã¢â¬Å"NIRMAÃ¢â¬ gathering. Trusted in an incentive for cash condition Sells 8,00,000 tons of cleanser powder each year Market portion of 35% Market Size : Market Size Closest danger to HUL with 35% piece of the pie. Nirma and Nima with 32 variations are dispersed through in excess of 2 million retail outlets, creating gross deals in overabundance of Rs.2600 crore. The organization has announced 4% drop in deals and 13% decrease in net revenues Accomplishments : Accomplishments seventh biggest purchaser brand by ACNielsen 03. First brand to perceive and tackle the intensity of the Indian country advertise. First Indian brands to justify a Harvard Business Review contextual investigation Items : Items Consumer Soaps Detergents Edible salt Scouring item Nirma shikakai Nirma cleanser Nirma toothpaste Industrial LAB ( Linear Alkyl Benzene ) AOS ( Alfa Olefin Sulfonate ) Sulfuric Acid Glycerin Soda Ash Pure salt Vacuum Evaporated Iodized Salt SSP-Single Super Phosphate Sodium silicate Cleansers : Cleansers Nirma Bath Soap Nirma Premium cleanser Nirma Beauty Soap Nirma Lime Fresh Soap Nima Rose Nima Sandal Nima Lime Nima Herbal Nirma Herbalina Cleansers : Cleansers Nirma Washing Powder Nirma Detergent Cake Super Nirma Washing Powder Nirma Popular Detergent Nirma Popular Detergent Cake Nima Green Powder Advancement : Advancement Featured a woman washing a piece of clothing Daughter was included on the pack Focuses on esteem for-cash One of the most seasoned and appealing jingle first disclosed on radio in quite a while, communicate on TV in 1982 Nirma Consumer Care Limited Brand esteem : Brand esteem Initially every pack of Nirma returned with a cash ensure. Has faith in holding with the shopper. The jingle has been utilized by Nirma throughout the previous 25 years. Late Developments : Late Developments The organization has relaunched Nirma Yellow Washing Powder and Nirma Beauty Soap, two of its most grounded brands. Nirma Yellow Powder is being re-propelled with improved definition and new publicizing. This is an augmentation of the first promotion which will return after the dispatch is finished. Nirma Beauty Soap is being re-propelled with another shape, aroma and a more intelligent, more splendid pack to improve rack perceivability Acquired Searles Valley Minerals Operations and Searles Valley Minerals
The recreational utilization of pot has become a nearly standard piece of our general public today, so standard in actuality that 16. 8% of Canadians more established than 15 use it. In government, the discussion to authorize weed has a distant memory to and fro yet never arriving at a resolution. We will compose a custom paper test on Neurological Effects of Marijuana or on the other hand any comparable subject just for you Request Now Be that as it may, in this discussion is the legislature truly looking at the mental impacts of the medication, or are they simply worried about the cash angle. In one investigation of the neuropsychological impacts of cannabis it was reasoned that Ã¢â¬Å"The low portion delivered summed up disability of every single mental procedure (idea arrangement, memory, material structure separation and engine work). Ã¢â¬ The exploration question of this exposition is Ã¢â¬Å"Are the short and long haul neuropsychological impacts of pot sufficiently extreme to leave enduring impacts on our general public? Ã¢â¬ Purpose The proposition of this article is Ã¢â¬Å"the neuropsychological impacts of weed are ery evident through test explore and the shortfalls brought about by pot could get obvious in our general public and make issues not far off. Ã¢â¬ The paper will continue in the request for first looking at an instance of neuropsychological consequences for overwhelming cannabis clients, at that point we will inspect a portion of these impacts and they way they sway high school maryjane clients. It will likewise be inspected how pot might be viewed as a reason for maniacal scatters, and furthermore the manner in which maryjane influences hostility. Contention The utilization of pot influences the mind and our neuropsychological capacities, for example, memory. In any case, how memory is influenced; is it long haul or momentary memory and is this an enduring impact or not. In an examination performed by Kanayama, Rogowska, Pope , Gruber , and Yurgelun-Todd (2003), 12 overwhelming cannabis smokers, and a benchmark group of 10 others were to finished a spatial working memory worldview that included two errands: an observation task and a brief pause working memory task while experiencing practical attractive reverberation imaging. The outcomes demonstrated that the ongoing cannabis clients showed more prominent and more boundless mind enactment than ordinary subjects when endeavoring to play out the previously mentioned task. This proposes the ongoing cannabis clients may encounter some neuropsychological deficiencies and they make up for these shortfalls by calling upon various areas of the mind to assist in finishing the errand. This examination shows that for an overwhelming cannabis client, basic assignments require additional exertion from various districts of the mind so as to achieve said task. This exploratory examination was all around led and gave critical discoveries in regards to the neuropsychological elements of an overwhelming cannabis client. These discoveries show that the substantial cannabis clients needed to work more earnestly to achieve the main job, and despite the fact that they despite everything figured out how to achieve the errand, the neurological shortages appeared through this investigation could leave them injured or impeded further down the road with proceeded with utilization of the medication. The discussion proceeds in that individuals are uncertain whether neurological deficiencies related with cannabis keep going possibly as long as the medication does or if the proceed a short time later and are increasingly lasting. For instance, Fried (2005; refered to in Murray, Morrison, Henquet, Di Forti 2007) et al. discovered no proof of subjective shortfalls in cannabis clients following three months of abstention66, while Bolla (2005; refered to in Murray, Morrison, Henquet, Di Forti 2007) et al. discovered enduring shortfalls in dynamic and cerebrum action among substantial cannabis clients who had been abstinent for 25 days. This irregularity could be because of the time of members or any number of different factors, which is the reason this kind of investigations can be hazy and uncertain on occasion. One part of the age variable is that most investigations of this sort are performed on grown-up members thus doesn't show how the neurological impacts of cannabis may influence the developing psyche of a youngster. In an examination performed by Harvey, Sellman, Porter, and Frampton (2007), 70 young people matured 13-18 were selected, and following a 12 hour restraint from weed played out a few test. These tests incorporated a socioeconomics poll, a Timeline Follow-Back (TLFB) survey for tranquilize use in the previous 28 days. Insight was estimated utilizing the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery was utilized and the tests controlled were: Motor screening (visual and development issues), Rapid visual data preparing (consideration and memory), Spatial working (memory and system), Intradimensional extradimentional move (consideration), and Paired Associates learning (visuo-spatial and spatial range). The pen and paper psychological tests utilized were Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test, and Symbol Digit Modalities Test. Mental working estimates utilized were: Visual Analog Scale for Mood (present state of mind), Beck Depression Inventory II, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Conduct Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The Timeline Follow-Back demonstrated that 68. 5% of members had utilized cannabis over the most recent 28 days. The outcomes found from this all around led study show that teenagers who were standard cannabis clients indicated a fundamentally more awful exhibition on four proportions of psychological capacities; consideration, spatial working, memory, and learning. These outcomes recommend that the youthful psyche could be progressively helpless to the neuropsychological shortfalls experienced through successive utilization of maryjane. This is negative thinking about 68. 5% of members use maryjane much of the time and therefore has neurological deficiencies with regards to consideration, spatial working, memory and learning. On the off chance that this example is a nearby portrayal of the young populace, at that point our general public could have issues not far off. On the off chance that these adolescents keep on devouring cannabis routinely through to adulthood, at that point we could see these neurological deficiencies etting more awful and more terrible as these youngsters gain greater duty as they progress through life. Another chance of issues that could emerge out of this is the likelihood that cannabis use could prompt psychosis or schizophrenia. It is indistinct whether this is valid or not at the same time, yet at times cannabis has been regarded a causal hazard factor for schizophrenia. Richard Reading (2004) inspected the proof behind these cases and distinguished five investigations that incorporated an all around characterized test drawn from populace based registers or associates and utilized forthcoming proportions of cannabis use and grown-up psychosis. In the wake of looking at these cases altogether he inferred that cannabis is a part cause to psychosis. It is a piece of a mind boggling blend of various elements which lead to psychosis not far off. Through these discoveries Reading esteemed that instances of insane issue could be limited by debilitating cannabis use to helpless youth. Taking into account how 16. 8% of Canadians use maryjane all the time, this is a negative finding. Regardless of whether maryjane is just a single little factor which contributes with numerous different components to the possibility of an insane issue, at that point having this numerous individuals sharing could expand the quantity of crazy issue in Canada by a lot. We additionally realize that a huge piece of young people use cannabis as a social movement, and when utilized as often as possible for significant stretches of time these adolescents could create crazy issue from the get-go throughout everyday life, making it hard for them to add to our general public to their maximum capacity. Then again anyway cannabis might give some positive to our general public also. In a previous investigation directed by Myerscough and Taylor (1985), the animosity levels of thirty male understudies were analyzed while affected by either a light, medium, or overwhelming portion of maryjane. Since the U. S. government discharged Ã¢â¬Å"Reefer MadnessÃ¢â¬ in 1936, it has been being referred to whether cannabis truly drives individuals insane and amps up their hostility. The subjects were given either a low, medium, or high portion of weed at that point were sat in stall which related with the corner of another member. They were informed that by pushing on one of eleven catches they could pick the force of an electric stun that would be managed to their comparing subject and the other way around. The individual who finished this assignment quicker would not be managed the stun however would discover what level of stun the other had picked for him. At the point when the members would see the forcefulness of the otherÃ¢â¬â¢s decisions and get stuns they would maybe turn out to be progressively forceful themselves. In finishing up the information they had accumulated indicated that individuals in the low portion bunch would in general react more forcefully than those in the mid to significant level gatherings. Those members in the high portion bunch were generally non-forceful all through the whole analysis. These discoveries demonstrate that when individuals are on weed they will in general be progressively without a care in the world, and less effortlessly disturbed. This could profit numerous individuals by assisting with facilitating pressure. It could likewise assist with decreasing the irritation behind numerous demonstrations of wrongdoing, and savagery in our general public. Sadly we couldn't generally utilize these discoveries to further our potential benefit since we can't control who does what, and when. This helps shed some light on the advantages weed could have for our general public. End The standard utilization of maryjane as a Ã¢â¬Å"party drugÃ¢â¬ or social apparatus in our general public has begun to turn crazy. Grown-ups and young people the same partake in this illicit propensity, however what are the results. As we see all through this paper pot causes shortages in the neurological procedures of grown-ups by making the mind work more enthusiastically to achieve certain assignments. Additionally in young people the psychological procedures of memory, spatial working, consideration,
Sunday, July 12, 2020
Essential Information About Seroquel (Quetiapine) Bipolar Disorder Treatment Medications Print Seroquel (Quetiapine) Essential Information By Marcia Purse Marcia Purse is a mental health writer and bipolar disorder advocate who brings strong research skills and personal experiences to her writing. Learn about our editorial policy Marcia Purse Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on November 14, 2014 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD Updated on May 15, 2019 Wikimedia Commons More in Bipolar Disorder Treatment Medications Symptoms Diagnosis Seroquel â" generic quetiapine fumarate â" is classed as an atypical antipsychotic medication. It is used to treat psychotic symptoms of such illnesses like schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder, including hallucinations, delusions, catatonia, and paranoia. It is also approved for use in treating acute manic episodes of bipolar disorder with or without psychotic features and has some antidepressant effects. Seroquel may be used adjunctively with Lithium or Depakote in the therapy of acute mania. Drug Warnings and Complications Treatment with Seroquel is associated with the risk of some serious complications. These include: Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS), a potentially fatal illness whose symptoms include high fever, muscle rigidity, profuse sweating, and dark urine. Read more: Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome.Tardive Dyskinesia, a movement disorder that may not go away unless treated promptly. Symptoms include uncontrolled movements of the lips and tongue. High blood sugar and diabetes. Patients who have diabetes mellitus or have risk factors such as obesity and family history of diabetes should have fasting blood glucose tests before beginning treatment with Seroquel and at regular intervals during treatment. Rare but Significant Side Effects In 1% or fewer of patients taking Seroquel in clinical trials, the following were reported: CataractsSeizuresUnderactive thyroidElevated cholesterol and triglycerides Also, patients may experience sleepiness and impaired motor control (difficulty walking, etc.) especially at the beginning of treatment with Seroquel. The usual warning about not driving or operating heavy machinery is important with this medication. Black Box Warning Regarding Elderly Patients Seroquel carries the standard black box warning required for all antipsychotics regarding the increased risk of death in elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis. Pregnancy and Breast-Feeding It is recommended that Seroquel treatment is discontinued during pregnancy. Women taking Seroquel should not breastfeed their infants. Other Cautions and Warnings Do not drink alcoholic beverages while taking Seroquel.Avoid overheating and dehydrationSeroquel is not approved for pediatric usePatients with liver disease should start at the lowest dose (25 mg) and increase the dosage slowly Most Common Side Effects Weight GainSleepinessHeadacheDizzinessDrop in blood pressure upon standingDry mouthConstipationDizzinessWeaknessUpset stomach
Wednesday, June 10, 2020
Manchester Minshull Street Crown Court was very much the stereotypical image of a court, complete with the old brickwork, the large courtrooms with lots of polished wood, and of course, the gowns and the wigs. In comparison, Manchesters Civil Justice Centre was much more modern, consisting of lots of glass and lots of floors. Although in the civil court it was only possible to view small claims trials, in the crown court, it was possible to observe part of a trial with a jury (the defendant was accused of engaging in sexual acts with a minor) and a case of assault which ended with a plea-bargain. Here, both courts will be considered for their differences and similarities, to try and find out how accurate perceptions of the law are. Two observations stood out in the Crown Court; firstly, the number of staff involved both in and behind the scenes of the proceedings. Although in every case, there will be a judge, solicitors or barristers (in some cases both) and in certai n circumstances a jury, the court room is a much busier place than first envisioned. For example, there will be the clerks of the court keeping the procedure running smoothly (e.g. escorting the jury in, swearing in witnesses) and there will be the security officer (who will escort the defendant in and out of the courtroom when required), as well as other staff members who keep the process going. Before the Judge is called, and the court is in session, there are constantly people walking in and out of the courtroom, usually counsel or other members of the court; sometimes a change of plea is issued at the last minute, and a scheduled trial by jury no longer takes place, or the court staff are confirming details of the case. Indeed, among the staff that dont constitute as counsel or the judiciary, the upcoming case is often discussed, bringing everyone up to speed before the case is called into session. A court trial procedure isnt simply the job of the lawyers and the judge as commo n perceptions might have one believe. Secondly, there is a lot more waiting around than anticipated. Trials and hearings do not always take place in one sitting, and they do not even have to be completed on the same day. As aforementioned, more often that not (and certainly more often than initially believed), a scheduled trial will no longer take place, usually due to a change in plea. The case surrounding assault initially was going ahead as a jury trial, but just before the case was due to be called into session, the defendant changed his plea to guilty, which meant a trial was no longer needed. Lord Devlin once described the jury as the lamp that shows freedom livesÃ Ã . However, in reality, very few cases are tried by a jury. Only a small minority of cases are ever brought to trial, of which even fewer are actually tried before a jury, and during the visits to the Crown Court (which as it is only represent 2% of criminal trialsÃ Ã ), only one of the cases ob served was brought before a jury. The jury itself in this instance could be considered as ethnically varied; although mostly white, there was (as far as could be seen) at least one juror from an ethnic minority, and the jury covered both genders in a roughly 2:3 male to female ratio. There was also a noticeable age variation among the jurors, from the estimated age of a university student to the estimated age of a pensioner. As a whole, the jury seemed to be quite involved in what they were doing. Some were paying close attention to the monitor to their left (at that time displaying video evidence) and others were taking notes. Of all the jurors, only the one who appeared to be a student seemed reluctant to be involved in the whole process. Although the way the judge directed the jury both at the beginning of the process and at the end wasnt observed, his instructions during the process were clear, helpful and authoritative, especially when setting up the video call and when d irecting them as to the procedures during their break. Even though issues were discussed between the judge and the both counsels during the jurys absence, when they returned, the judge kept them informed of what had been said, keeping everyone organised and up-to-date. On the whole, in the Crown Court cases, most of the judges did fit with the stereotypical image in terms of age, gender and race: in all the cases observed, all were older white males, and all wore the traditional gowns and wigs anticipated by the public majority when in a court room. However, on the courts daily procedures listings, it was noticed that although the majority of judges were indeed male and of the ranking of Circuit Judge (supporting government statistics that 87.6% Circuit Judges are maleÃ Ã ), there was a singular female judge listed (although she had the ranking of Recorder rather than Circuit Judge, where females only make up 13.68% of the totalÃ Ã ). In a similar light, there too w ere few judges from ethnic minorities, and those that there were from an ethnic minority had the status of a Recorder (6.02% of the total number of Recorders come from an ethnic minorityÃ Ã ). In all, the judges in all the criminal trials and proceedings observed didnt appear to have become case-hardened and cynical as proponents of a jury-based system will have people believe. The judges seemed willing to keep an open mind throughout the case and were friendly to everyone both during the proceedings and the time in between. In a case of assault, when the judge was giving his final statements, he took a moment aside from the case to thank the defendants mother (the defendant was a black male teenager, seemingly conforming to stereotypes) for coming to the trial. He went on to explain then about how many similar cases hed tried and how often the family of the accused actually bothered to go to the proceedings, so he was glad that the mother would still support her son. Alth ough not strictly law related, this feature of this one trial was surprising and challenged common perceptions that judges are stereotypically harsh and unfeeling. This was especially the case with young offenders in specific circumstances in the case of assault, the defendant was initially defending himself from attack and took the defence too far. One of the most interesting aspects of the Crown Court was the use of video-calling to interview a witness. This was most likely due to the fact the material witness was a fourteen year old girl, who for various reasons could not be present within the courtroom itself. A video-monitor was situated near to the jury and another was situated in view of the whole court, and these were used to both hold the video-call and to observe video evidence. The judge himself was in control of the call, echoing his authority. This case also interesting due to the fact it shows how serious evidence is taken by the judge although only fourteen, the witness was still required to be sworn in and how important tangible evidence actually is for a criminal trial. Unlike the proceedings in the Crown Court, the proceedings in the Civil Court had a much more restricted access, mostly due to the nature of the cases. A vast majority of the cases brought before a Civil Court are family proceedings, which means they are conducted in private, and this restricted the number of cases available for viewing. As of April 27th 2009, the restriction on journalists who wished to attend family court hearings was lifted, allowing for more proceedings to be heard publicly, but they are not given automatic access to court documents and reporting restrictions still remain in place, including the total ban on reporting Children Act proceedings and hearings concerning the maintenance and upbringing of a childÃ Ã , even if this means nothing to the public majority. In comparison, in the Crown Court, where the cases are of a criminal nature, the re are no restrictions on members of the press being present during any trial or case, even if the case itself is not open to the rest of the publicÃ Ã (which would only occur in cases of national security or cases of a highly sensitive nature). Out of the cases observed in the Civil Court, not one involved the use of a jury. Jury trials in civil courts are now very rare, and are restricted to cases of fraud, libel and slander, malicious prosecution and cases of false imprisonment. It too can be said that unlike in a magistrates or a crown court where their job is to determine the truth and validity of a case based on the evidence brought before them, in a civil court, their job is to base their decision on the balance of probabilities. During one of the small claims trials in the Civil Court, neither party had a fully qualified representative for their counsel. The defendant defended himself, and eventually lost the case partially on the basis that he didnt really seem to understand the legal process (i.e. the procedure required for witness statements or how to ask witnesses questions that were actually relevant to his case) and as a consequence couldnt defend himself adequately. The judge constantly had to reiterate and qualify what he meant or what he was asking, which made the process much longer than maybe it needed to have been. In comparison, the claimant was in the process of taking the BVC and had previous experience within his company of similar cases, even if he wasnt yet qualified, and so had a much greater understanding of what was going on (he was able to include cases which constituted precedent for his argument and he understood how the whole process worked, such as addressing the judge and using the specific terminology). This seems to suggest that the case wasnt as understandable to a lay person as to someone who has some understanding of legal issues and terminology. In the Civil Court, there was a much greater use of precede nt than in the Crown Court, supporting the prior observation that a civil case is decided on a balance of probabilities rather than on the basis of the validity of evidence presented (e.g. cases include Lumley v. GreenÃ Ã , OBG Ltd v AllanÃ Ã ). This isnt to say that evidence isnt used in a Civil Court or isnt equally as important, but it emphasised the extent to which a criminal trial is mostly based upon evidence which is unique to a certain case. A civil trial is different in that the specifics dont matter quite as much as the way similar cases have been settled in the past. The proceedings in the civil court were a much more continual process, or at least in the small claims trial the proceedings were more continuous. Whereas as aforementioned, the criminal trials involved a lot of sitting around, the cases in the civil court werent interrupted once, with the entire case laid out before the judge and then his decision being made at the end of the proceedings (in one case, his decision to issue damages to be paid by the defendant). However, these small claims trials arent fully representative of all the proceedings in the civil court, despite making up a large percentage, and it must be acknowledged that proceedings in full trials of other matters may indeed have been much different. Indeed, whilst waiting for a small claims trial to come into session, many counsel were observed walking around the courthouse, dressed in the traditional gowns, so whilst there were no wigs or gowns in the small claims trial, this doesnt mean they arent used in a trial in a higher court. The same therefore can be said about the proceedings what goes on in a lower court in front of a district judge may not be the same as one in a High court. Similar to the Crown Court, the judge in the small claims trial was male, however didnt fit into the stereotypical image of a judge he was Asian, fairly young and didnt wear any of the traditional gowns. Unlike the Cro wn Court too, he was referred to as Sir rather than Your Honour, which implies that the proceedings in this type of court case are a lot less formal than perhaps in a criminal trial (e.g. the members of the court werent required to stand when the judge entered) or even a civil trial in a High Court. So although he could potentially be viewed as holding a lower rank, this is not due to his ethnicity a High Court Judge simply isnt required to sit in on such a minor issue and there was no way of determining the race of the other judges in session. In the same light, there was no way to determine whether or not there were any female judges in session, or their rank, simply due to the trials available to see. Despite this, there were plenty of female staff, usually in administrative roles or acting as counsel, most noticeable acting at the clerk of the court. However, unlike in the Crown Court, she left almost immediately, leaving very few people in the courtroom as proceedings unfolded . The organisation of the civil court seemed to be a bit lacking, with proceedings being held up due to a lack of judges being in attendance or simply because parties involved were still trying to settle before their case was brought into session. In the same manner, cases which are scheduled do not always go ahead as planned as a defendant in a criminal trial will change his plea, so too can parties in a civil trial settle before they go before a judge which meant there was a lot of waiting around for proceedings to begin. This seems counter to the claim that a civil courts principle objection is the avoidance of delay and the minimisation of delay if it cannot be avoided entirelyÃ Ã , especially in light of the judges power to adjourn hearings at their discretion. In conclusion, many common perceptions surrounding court procedures are actually unfounded, both in the civil area and in the criminal. There are many more similarities in the different courts than origin ally perceived, but there are also some differences that were unexpected, such as the formalities of procedure and the amount of people actually involved in the different court processes. However, despite their similarities, the two types of court are very different in their nature (such as the types of cases they deal with) and these difference are obvious from watching the different proceedings.