Friday, January 24, 2020

The Swimmer Essay example -- essays research papers

"The Swimmer" by John Cheever describes Neddy Merril's "swim" home. Neddy is a husband and a father, he is also a drunk. The story encompasses about twenty years of his life of alcohol which ruined not only him but also his relationship with his family. One day after waking up with a hangover he drinks a little and decides to swim home. It is obvious he is a drunk because he is constantly searching for a drink on his swim home. Neddy was a wealthy man living in a wealthy high class neighborhood in Connecticut. He lived with his wife and kids. He was popular and had material possessions. He was living the good life, maybe too good. He was well respected and could usually be found at one of the invite only parties in his area. Neddy awoke from with a hangover one day and decided to swim home via the Lucinda river. The river was composed of the pools of people in his neighborhood. It was his version of "pool hopping" his way home. The story seems to take place over the course of a day but is, in fact, a twenty year period of his life in which alcoholism takes over his life and causes his family to desert him. Each pool he hops symbolizes a party he attended at that house some time over the course of the twenty years. Some pools bring back good memories with the parties which accompanied them. some not so good such as the public pool which wouldn't accept...

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Courtroom Workgroups Essay

In The United States criminal justice system the informal arrangement between a criminal prosecutor, criminal defense attorney, and the judicial officeris called a courtroom work group. The courtroom workgroup was proposed by Eisenstein and Jacob in 1977 to explain their observations of the ways courts, especially lower level courts, actually come to decisions. This foundational concept in the academic discipline of criminal justice identifies the seemingly opposing courtroom participants as collaborators in â€Å"doing justice.† Efficient courtroom workgroups seek to process cases rather than dispense justice. Because the courtroom workgroup deviates from the public idea of how justice works, it has developed a irregular set of virtues to continue its work and ease daily life for its participants. The academic theory of the courtroom workgroup has four cornerstone concepts that recognize this fact: Speed, Pragmatic Cynicism, Collegiality, and Secrecy. This has been proved to greater and lesser extents in different courts. Defendants are assumed to be guilty. The procedural merits of the case are the true determinative factors of an outcome. Prosecutors and defense attorneys engage in a comparison of charges against possible procedural flaws and possible defenses to determine at the going rate for a crime. These factors are used to figure out how much punishment the plea bargain will offer. For example, group relationships and the desire to â€Å"keep† a healthy working relationship are important to gr oup members. The workings of the courtroom group and the â€Å"going rate† for given crimes are not matters for public disclosure. Estimates can be given to clients, but usually uttered in terms of the prosecution’s willingness to negotiate. (Summarized by O’Connor, T.R., 2005) The courtroom workgroup is a tool for prosecutorial discretion. Many different techniques are used to convince the defendant that the evidence against him or her is overwhelming. The defendant may be persuaded to plead guilty to a few of the charges in return for not being prosecuted for the remaining charges. To convince the defendant that the risk of not pleading guilty is intolerable, â€Å"charge stacking† is a process by which police and prosecutors create a case with numerous charges or numerous instances of the  same charge to convince the defendant that the risk of not pleading guilty is intolerable. Many indirect pressures come together to boost participation in the courtroom workgroup. Defense attorneys in public defender offices often do not have enough time to prepare a case in detail for all of their clients. Further, they often do not have the budget to fully investigate the facts of a case through either staff or private investigators. They often must rely solely on police reports for such information. In some jurisdictions, clients do not meet their attorneys until they are in court. Typically, public defenders will meet briefly with clients in holding facilities or jails. The defense attorney defends his or her client by seeking less punishment. The courtroom workgroup is, in some sense, a response to a lack of resources for public defenders. Huemann (1977) indicates that many defense attorneys feel pressured to keep up with their caseloads. This pressure can be revealed in the courtroom through disapproval by the judge for delays. Many indirect pressures come together to boost participation in the courtroom workgroup. While many of the higher level prosecutions still follow the model, there is evidence that lower-level proceedings follow the courtroom workgroup model. The thought of a courtroom workgroup is associated with plea bargaining. The courtroom workgroup shows significant analytical power in overburdened courts dealing with large caseloads. The courtroom workgroup model is best suited to explain jurisdictions where defense attorneys are more or less permanently assigned, but even occasionally appointed lawyers can participate in these practices. Boland, Brady, Tyson, & Bassler (1983) indicate that approximately 90 percent of criminal cases are settled by plea bargain. This figure appears to be stable over the last twenty years (Rainville & Reaves, 2003). Some collaborative efforts on the part of the courtroom workgroup simply must be present to facilitate this high percentage of pleas. Sources Boland, B., Brady, E., Tyson, H., & Bassler, J. (1983). The prosecution of felony arrests. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Justice Statistics. Eisenstein, J. & Jacob, H. (1977). Felony Justice: An organizational analysis of  criminal courts. Boston : Little & Brown. Huemann, M. (1977). Plea bargaining: The experiences of prosecutors, judges, and defense attorneys. The University of Chicago Press: Chicago, Il. O’Connor, T.R. (2005). Court organizational issues: The courtroom workgroup. Rainville, G. & Reaves, B.A. (2003). Felony defendants in large urban counties. Washington D.C.: Bureau of Justice Statistics.

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

The Holiday Inn Amman Free Essay Example, 1000 words

The food services manager also suggested that the hotel should prepare Napoli Pizza brochures and present to each guest highlighting a phone number that the guests would use to order the pizza. In her opinion, the phone number indicated in the brochures should have a different prefix from the one used by Holiday Inn Amman. Moreover, guests calling the line indicated would receive a reply that it was the Napoli Pizza brand customer service. The hotel would deliver pizza to the guest placing orders in Napoli Pizza boxes. In addition, the hotel would ensure that the waiters and the servers delivering pizza to the guests would have to wear hats and jackets with the Napoli Pizza mark. Evidently, the proposal presented by the food services manager as outlined above presents several ethical issues. The food services manager suggests that the hotel can use a false identity and create a false brand in an effort to confuse the guests to make a different decision concerning the pizza offered by the hotel. Evidently, using the Napoli Pizza image is a contravention of the trademark law (McNeal, 2007). We will write a custom essay sample on The Holiday Inn Amman or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/page However, it is evident that the plan would multiply the pizza sales of the hotel. Since the proposal presented by the food services manager is under marketing, the marketing department should review the proposal and forward it to the hotel executives. The general manager of the hotel is beyond the obligations and mandate to make the ultimate decision. Top executives of the hotel should be involved in the decision-making process.