Friday, May 31, 2019

Feudalism :: Economy, History, Medieval Europe

Feudalism was created in the 9th century to eliminate social loony bin and put social classes into order. Kings would also use it to expand their land. In return they would get protection, money, crops, and court duties. It also used in war times so that the Knights were obligated to fight. They centralized government to organize power and land. Feudalism was used to give out land by the king, organize social standing and in return get military services and protection.Feudalism was a set of political and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and fifteenth centuries (Feudalism). The feudal system was not planned but, rather grew and developed in response to the social chaos that followed the fall of the Western Roman Empire. It provided order where there no longer was any, and it created new chains of command to replace those that were gone ( James 58). Feudalism was introduced by King William I to England this system organized power, land, and divid ed people into classes. The king, who owned all the land, gave some land to the church and to the barons in return for large blocks of land, the barons promised to fight for the king. Lent land to the knights and also putting green people (Susie 5). Feudalism test was also to defend against invaders (John 32). In the absence of centralized government authority, people look to personal relationships to bind society together. An item-by-item with military power to offer gave his services to a feudal lord (Hay 170). Feudalism was created to put society, land, and power into order. In the economic system, landlords would force laborers to work on the lords manor to the lords profit (Medieval 65).Feudalism cultured many aspects of Europe that remained in place (Hay 39). The feudal system was invented by 16th and 17th century lawyers and legal historians who were investigating the origins of the most common form of noble landholding in their own time (The Brown Reference chemical group 64). The feudal system was used in many aspects to making society and country simpler. Before the king would give out his land to the Barons, the barons would have to devour an Oath of Fidelity. Nobel property was subdivided among a multitude of co sharers. The feudal system was founded upon a more and less complicated hierarchy of barons and vassals, united by ties of judicature and fidelity by a sworn oath and by certain obligations which were defined in the contract.

Thursday, May 30, 2019

The Importance of Memory Essay -- Personal Narrative Writing

The Importance of Memory I remember lying in my bed one night when I was six years old, staring at the ceiling in the darkness, covers pulled up to my chin, thinking, Someday, Ill wake up and Ill be twenty years old. And someday Ill wake up and be forty. What will I look manage? What will I be doing? Will I be adroit? Will I remember what it was like to be six?Memory has always been a concern of mine mainly, is mine deficient somehow? Everyone else takems fit to remember the minutiae of their childhoods, while mine seems mostly fuzzy at best. Sometimes Ill get little snatches of an image or a feeling, summoned by something Ive seen or smelled or heard, or sometimes a memory will just float to the surface, unasked for. And other times, Ill consciously try to fight up a particular scene or moment, but my efforts are unsuccessful more often than not. Im twenty-one. Im probably a foot and a half taller and twice as heavy as my six-year-old self. Im in school, reading and writing a lot, laborious to figure out my life, wondering (still) what forty will be like. Sometimes Im happy, sometimes Im not. I aim for mirth now, mostly.This is what I remember. Im in first grade. My teacher is Ms. Schultz. She would make the perfect grandmother a bit chubby, short silvery-blonde hair, smiling blue look that crinkle in the corners, and a wardrobe consisting primarily of pink and purple sweatshirts, all cute-fluffy-animal-themed. Her face is so soft-looking I want to reach up and skin senses it. She likes blue eyeshadow. Im good at first grade. The other kids like my drawings. I know not to color the sky as a one-inch blue strip at the top of my paper. I like drawing horses and unicorns and Pegas... ... and whites. I race raindrops as we coast along the highway. I guess I remember more than I thought.People tell me its a terrible tendency I have sometimes of focusing on the past. They say, You should abide in the now. They insist, You should enjoy the p resent. I feel guilty at first, but I smile to see through the eyes of a six-year-old again. The guilt slides international easily because I know not to let a cloud of memories obscure the present, to freight the moment with past regrets. Instead, I use my memories to elevate my experiences now, to see everything around me with greater clarity. The past gives every moment a little more meaning. To me, it seems critical to know where and whence I came from, how I came to be like this, to think the way I do or act the way I do. Memory offers a claim of permanence, a means of positioning myself in time and in space.

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

Violent Behavior In Society Essay -- essays research papers

Violent Behavior in SocietyIt gained through violent behavior is only temporary and it lasts until thetime of revenge comes around. force-out was glorify hundreds of years ago. Back then it was a form of apure entertainment. We know how among ancient Romans, gladiators (usually slavesor captives trained for the purpose),fought with swords or other weapons at ordinary "shows". The more harm the gladiators inflicted the bigger hero he was,and the more respect he gained. All the crimes they committed were cond championd,accepted and glorified.Today it seems like instead of gladiators we acquit boxers. Is case just asport, or another way of violent behavior, that is not only accepted by societybut also in many ways glorified? Do we glorify boxing (most of the time bloodyshows) because it is entertaining, or maybe because it is a multi-milion dollarbusiness? The scenery of boxing is broken bones, black and blue faces,blood...The more severe the fight the more exited and happy the audience seemsto be. Violence simply stimulates people. Big glory comes when one passes come is the hero What is the message here? It is, we will like youmore since you are physically stronger, and we will respect you because we areafraid of you. That is again, a wrong message.Violence is glorified the most throught media, violent movies, TV shows andnewspaper sensationalism.THERE SEEMES TO BE A NEED FOR VIOLNCE IN SOCIETYViolent movies are born one after another &...

The Cherry Orchard - The Struggle :: Anton Chekhov Cherry Orchard Essays

The reddish orchard - The Struggle Anton Chekhovs play The Cherry Orchard introduces readers to a pre-Revolution Russian family faced with the impending trade of their estate, the Cherry Orchard. The main character in the play is the owner of the Cherry Orchard, Lyubov Andreyevna. It is in the play that Lyubov must ultimately decide whether to tout ensembleow her Cherry Orchard to be cut down to make room for villas or to sell the entire estate to pay off her debts. It is her unconditional love for both the Cherry Orchard and what it symbolizes to her that allows her to put the estate up for sale rather than have the Cherry Orchard cut down. Although she is a member of the Russian upper class, Lyubov is hopelessly out of touch with reality and very irresponsible when in comes to finances. She often throws money around as though thither are no consequences to her actions. by and by her husband died and her boy was tragically drowned at the Cherry Orchard, she fled to Par is and bought a villa, which she soon had to sell to pay off her debts. Lyubov dines lavishly and tips handsomely when in all actuality she hasnt a dime to spare. She throws parties and hires orchestras she knows she can not pay for. It is this type of behavior that put Lyubov deep enough into debt to where her beloved estate has been put at risk. To Lyubov the Cherry Orchard means so much more than the acres and acres of beautiful cherry trees and rivers so much more than the piece of ground that was featured in the encyclopedia. To her it represents her sense of nostalgia, a longing for the past. It is the place where her grandparents lived. Her mother and father lived there as well. It reminds Lyubov of her youth. When she looks at the cherry trees she does not just grab branches and blossoms, she sees a time when she walked through the orchard with her mother as a young girl. She says I used to sleep here when I was littleand here I am like a churl again. Lyubovs innocence also remains a part of the Cherry Orchard, for as a child she did not own serfs or squander her familys money. Even though the Cherry Orchard invokes thoughts of her lost husband and son, she still treasures it.

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

Economics Review :: Economics Cheat Sheet

Economics ReviewChapter 1Section 11. Economics study of how individuals & nations make choices about ship canal to physical exercise scarce resources to fulfill their needs & wants.2. Scarcity state in which people dont & cannot have enough income, time, or other resources to satisfy.3. Factors of production resources of land, labor, capital, & entrepreneurship utilise to leaven goods & services.4. Entrepreneurship ability to start new businesses, to introduce new products, & techniques.Section 21. Trade-off exchanging one thing for the use of another, often making needful choices because of the problem of scarcity.2. Opportunity cost value of the next best alternative given up for the alternative that was chosen.Section 31. Economy all performance in a nation that affects the production, distribution, & use of goods & services.2. Economic model simplified representation of the real world which shows peoples reactions to changes in the economy theory.3. value beliefs or characteristics that an individual or group considers important.Chapter 2Section 11. Traditional economic dust economic systems are based on customs, beliefs, & ways of doing things that have been passed down from generation to generation.2. Command economic system the government controls the factors of production & makes all decisions about their use also called controlled economy.3. Market economic system individuals own the factors of production & make economic decisions through free interaction government doesnt intervene.4. Distribution of income money payment for work, the amount of health care, education, food, & so on, that each person receives distribution of goods & services among all members of an economic system.Section 21. Capitalism private individuals own the factors of production and decide how to use them at heart the limits of the law market economic system & free enterprise system.2. Free enterprise system individuals own the factors of production & deci de how to use them within effectual limits.3. Profit money left after all the costs of production wages, rent, interest, & taxes have been paid.4. Profit incentive desire to make money that motivates people to produce & sell goods & services that others ant to buy.5. Competition rivalry among producers or sellers of similar goods to win more business by offering the lowest prices or come apart quality.Section 31. Standard of living material well-being of an individual, group, or nation measured by the average value of goods & services used by the average citizen during a given period of time.

Economics Review :: Economics Cheat Sheet

Economics ReviewChapter 1Section 11. Economics study of how individuals & nations break choices about ways to purpose scarce resources to fulfill their needs & wants.2. Scarcity state in which people dont & cannot have enough income, time, or other resources to satisfy.3. Factors of return resources of land, labor, capital, & entrepreneurship used to produce goods & services.4. Entrepreneurship ability to start new businesses, to introduce new products, & techniques.Section 21. Trade-off exchanging one thing for the use of another, often making unavoidable choices because of the problem of scarcity.2. Opportunity cost rank of the next best alternative given up for the alternative that was chosen.Section 31. Economy all activity in a nation that affects the production, distribution, & use of goods & services.2. Economic model simplified representation of the real world which shows peoples reactions to changes in the economy theory.3. Values beliefs or characteristics that an individual or group considers important.Chapter 2Section 11. Traditional economic system economic systems argon based on customs, beliefs, & ways of doing things that have been passed down from generation to generation.2. Command economic system the government controls the factors of production & consecrates all decisions about their use also called controlled economy.3. Market economic system individuals own the factors of production & make economic decisions through free interaction government doesnt intervene.4. Distribution of income money salary for work, the amount of health care, education, food, & so on, that each person receives distribution of goods & services among all members of an economic system.Section 21. Capitalism private individuals own the factors of production and dissolve how to use them within the limits of the law market economic system & free enterprise system.2. Free enterprise system individuals own the factors of production & decide how to use them within legal limits.3. Profit money left after all the costs of production wages, rent, interest, & taxes have been paid.4. Profit incentive desire to make money that motivates people to produce & sell goods & services that others ant to buy.5. Competition rivalry among producers or sellers of similar goods to win more business by go the lowest prices or better quality.Section 31. Standard of living material well-being of an individual, group, or nation measured by the average value of goods & services used by the average citizen during a given period of time.

Monday, May 27, 2019

Ken Kesey Research Paper

When writing a story, an author uses themes and elements which are related to his life. Many of Kenneth Elton Keseys novels including One Flew Over the Cuckoos Nest sustain messages which can be interpreted by discovering his life events. Ken Elton Kesey was born 1935 in La Junta, Colorado and pull roundd with his parents Frederick Kesey and Geneva Smith. Ken travel to Springfield, Oregon where he spent his early years hunting, fishing, and swimming. In his teenage years, Ken spent his time wrestling in both high cultivate and college.In 1956, while attending college at the University of Oregon Kesey fell in love with his high-school sweetheart, Norma Faye Haxby, whom he had met in seventh grade. Ken and Norma then had three children Jed, Zane, and Shannon. Later, Kesey had another(prenominal) child named Sunshine with a woman named Carolyn Adams. Kesey attended the University of Oregons School of Journalism, where he received a degree in speech and communication in 1957. He was aw arded a Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship in 1958 to enroll in the creative writing program at Stanford University, which he did the following year.While at Stanford, he studied under Wallace Stegner and begun his project which would later be known as One flew Over the Cuckoos Nest. In 1959, Kesey volunteered to take part in a CIA-financed study. The project studied the effects of psychoactive drugs such as LSD, psilocybin, mescaline, cocaine, AMT, and DMT, on people. This most likely influenced Kesey to write about a psychiatric environs in his story One Flew Over the Cuckoos Nest.Also inspiring to Keseys works were his night shifts at the Menlo Park Veterans Hospital. There, Kesey often spent time talking to patients which were under the control of hallucinogenic drugs. Kesey believed that the patients were not insane rather that society had pushed them out because they did not fit formal ideas of how people were supposed to act and behave. (Cliffsnotes Art. 2) Kesey proves ho w just because someone may seem different than the rest of the crowd, society dumps them into a ward. move onmore, Kesey introduces a normal person (Mcmurphy) into the ward, so he can challenge the authority of the nurses and can inspire the patients to believe they are just like any other human beings and their abilities to live a normal life should not be restrained by a nurse. In 1963, when the novel was published, it became an immediate success. Kesey was not only an author, but a playwright director. Many of his ideas were Shakespearean as well as real life themes which were inputted into his novels.Some reoccurring themes in Keseys novels include the fight for sexual freedom, and revolt through the introduction of a leader. Harding shuts off the buffer, and leaves it in the hall and goes and pulls him a chair up alongside Mcmurphy and sits down and lights a cigarette too. Mr. Harding You return to your schedule duties Then Cheswick goes and gets him a chair, and then Billy B ibbit goes, and then Scanlon and then Fredrickson and Sefelt, and then we all put down our mops and brooms and scouring tags and we all go and pull chairs up. You men- stopover this. Stop (Cuckoos Nest 144)One of the many examples of rebellion through a leader is seen through this passage. This is Keseys way of freeing the patients under the conformity of the hospital when Kesey took part in the financed study. Many of Keseys famous novels and playwrights include One Flew Over the Cuckoos Nest, Sometimes a Great Notion, Demon Box, Caverns, The Further Inquiry, Sailor Song, Last Go Round, and Twister. Some of Keseys most popular genres also include mystery and realistic fiction.In 1965 Kesey was arrested for possession of marijuana. Interestingly, he locomote to Mexico and faked a suicide. When he returned back to the states, he served a five-month sentence in the San Mateo County Jail. After he got out, he bought a farm house in harming Hill, Oregon and settled down with his wif e to raise his children. He was going through major complications later in his life at this time as he had surgery on his liver to remove a tumor. He never recovered from the operation and died of difficulties on November 10, 2001, aged 66.

Sunday, May 26, 2019

Dekada 70 Starting Summary

In the 70s, the Republic of the Philippines was puzzleing under the midst of then- President Ferdinand Marcos reign as ruler. It was in September 21st, 1972, that he chained close whatever inkling of democracy the Filipinos had by declaring Martial Law. Unfortunately, it was a rule of a a twisted secernate the nation would be under the rule of the Armed Forces, but contrary to its definition, Marcos Martial Law kept himself in power.Dekada 70 (Translated into English, the 70s decade) is a bittersweet tale of hit the sack in the face of hate, hope in the face oppression, and new life in the midst of death. It is a novel of a gravel, her examination of her oft-unappreciated role in modern society, and how she struggles to find for herself a sense of purpose and identity while suffering through the very pit of the nations disintegration. It is a novel of a mother and her family, how society around her affects her family.It is a tale of she becomes torn between the letter of the law or her responsibility as a mother. Dekada 70 tells of how under hate, greed and corruption, unrivaled normal person transcends beyond right and wrong instead learns that it is freedom that entails survival. Set in the 70s, urban Metro Manila, Amanda Bartolome is a middle-class mother of phoebe bird young men. Amanda acts as a supposed symbolism of detachment. First of all, she was a mother, a housewife such were non considered integral parts of society during those times.She was not the breadwinner she did not experience the foremost effects of the decline of the Philippines economy back then. She was a member of the middle class her family did not take money, like the rich, nor did her family suffer the worst of the financial crises, like the poor. The lives of Amandas children each went in different directions in the story, and each varied. Her eldest son was Jules. Jules grew up normally, similar to every other idealistic family. His upbringing was that of what ideally confor med to normal.

Saturday, May 25, 2019

Examining Exclusivity in Mass Marketing

apologise why Sears or Wal-Mart cannot effectively create a trendy counterculture image. High volume and mass court are at the core of one-stop- let on retailers like Sears and Wal-Mart. These stores are the culture others are trying to counter. Wal-Mart relies on mass production of the products they sell to keep manufacturing and shipping be down. This allows them to maximize profitability. Profitability is not at the core of counterculture unique style and individualism are.Counterculture is the alternate of culture, even a subculture. For an active member of the counterculture to shop at a store that sells toilet paper a few isles down from their jeans defies the very image they are set to create or maintain. This is the same rationalness Urban Outfitters cannot sell Craftsman power tools. This would counter the counterculture image Urban Outfitters is built upon. Could the big box stores sell merchandise identical to Urban Outfitters? Explain your answer.Big box stores can se ll merchandise identical to niche stores like Urban Outfitters to keep up with trends. Stores like Costco can produce, ship and investment firm merchandise on a large scale in hopes of increasing profitability. Seemingly exclusive products appeal to the quite a little that do not normally shop at, or cannot afford to shop at more exclusive retailers like Urban Outfitters. This in itself is a trend because erstwhile the product is no daylong exclusive, it will eventually no longer sell as it did previously.Also if the once exclusive product sells at all is a gamble in marketing and sales. Matching the appeal of the original product, timing of launch so as to miss out on the value while it exists and availability to the masses can impact how well a trendy product will sell at a big box store. If it does, what is the effect on the exclusivity once offered by Urban Outfitters? Identify at least three reasons why exclusivity is valuable.

Friday, May 24, 2019

Apple: Power, Control and Conflict Essay

According to Fortune magazine, orchard apple tree has been named the most admired attach to in the US in 2008, expanding its reputation throughout the knowledge base from 2008-2012. However, the popular giant organisation has being critsized widely for its contractor labour practices, logical argument practices as well as orchard apple trees own milieual approach. This essay leave analyze orchard apple tree in two contrasting sight theories which will help us understand the practices in a better context these two view will be the modernist and the minute guess.The modernist organization idealogue thinks that having a grasp over knowledge over how well they understand how and why organizations work the way they do and how their functionality is have-to doe withed by the ever-changing environmental conditions. Organizational problems atomic number 18 identified so as to bewilder up with much efficient and effective ways for the organization to improve its profitability a nd mystify a competitive advantage. In addition, the modernist theorist thinks that successful organizations are able to cope with pressures internally and externally, develop basic competencies, increase productiveness and being filmable to change.The fine speculation perspective is actually a somewhat opposite approach of the modernist conjecture. It is introduced to critique the unfavourable running(a) conditions for the workers in an organisation. Although critical theorists claim it is principal(prenominal) to observe and interact with the world, they in like manner believe one must be able to examine and approach problems in order to come up with solutions (Rucker, 2012) Critical theorist also feel that the modernist way consider labour power is a commodity beca genial function they white plague multitude to to gene station financial gains. The critical theory also states that there are unequal power in the workplace where there is control and domination by the man agers with authoritative power.Power,Control, conflictThere are three different theories to power, control and conflict in an organisation. According to (Weber, 2001), he thinks that legitimate power is hidden within hierarchy. For control, it is usually exercised by the organisation and it is fabricated that the decision maker agree about organisational goals. Finally, for conflict, organizational decision makers are usually faced with competition, scarce resources, interdependence. This usually leads to the conflicts as the one holding reigning positions would tend to make their own decisions for their own benefits to safeguard their position. This becomes a political behavior by individuals. However, self awareness of the individual would usually lead them to set out their interests with that of the orders that will in turn benefit the organization objectives at the same time.Modernist theorists hold the concept of control using bureaucratic theories. It makes use of liberty to set veritable regulations, rules, standard procedures to obtain a certain kind of control over its employees. It also usually engage in distinction and departmentalization. The modernist theorist strives to improve faculty and effectiveness at all times by having control on information, surveillance, rewarding of employees and a contract to protect the interests of two sides. Clan control theories approaches are also utilise to influence employees through group behavior and to establish culture within groups. Finally, they also hold the opinion that conflict in organization is counter-productive and should be managed by those in power to maximize performance.A critical theorist believes in the genial, economic and political structures and ideologies roleplay a part in affecting the organisation. It also challenges the owners right to profit-favours democracy. It also criticizes the system showing signs of souration, domination, resistance and miscommunication. It tries to frees dominated groups and develop more democratic and humanistic forms. It believes that employees of an organisation usually give consent to their own exploitation through a false sense of consciousness. Finally, it feels that conflict is an inevitable meaning of capitalism and is necessary for resistance.When the two different individuals have different perspective, disagreements tend to occur. The disagreements are further aggravated by the miscommunication or the attitudes of different individuals. This usually results in one party trying to gain an upper hand on another.A modernist theorist keeps conflicts under control by assigning power and authority to an individual to manage such problems. The formalised methods, rules and regulations by organisations also assist in helping to reduce conflicts at work. With lesser conflicts occurring at work, performance, productivity and efficiency is greatly improved.In comparison, the critical theorist supports conflicts as it shows a form of resistance towards the power in the organisation. With conflicts, improvements could be implemented and this could increase work productivity as well as a sense of workers satisfaction. Conflicts are viewed as beneficial in this case as workers are authorize to their own opinions which in turns help motivate the workers morale and induce creativity in them.Organization structure and physical structureThe organisational cordial structure refers to the relationship people share within an organisation. This structure is believed to be used as a tool to control organisational outcomes. It also represents the way people interact and exchange information and data which improves the efficieincy of the organisation. The physical structure refers to the spatial relationships amid physical elements of an organisation cogitate to its buildings and the places they are located at.Modernist and Critical theorist share similar ideologies about the organisation and physical structure as they help employees achieve maximum productivity which increase efficiency. However, there are certain views that are between Modernist and Critical Theorist that pales in comparison.Modernist theorist usually try to look for high levels of performance which they believe is linked to statistical relationships between dimensions of structure and performance they could develop a successful strategy. They follow the organisational practices and regulations by adopting the Mechanistic structure (Burns & Stalker, 1961), which implements conventionalism and customary practices through guidelines. With positions and ranks to determine authority, this usually creates a sense of control over employees to achieve beneficial profits (Clegg & Haugaard, 2009). This structure is usually modelled on successful governing organisations to be used as a point of reference. As for the physical structure, the modernist perspective believes that lighting, music, temperature and a few other physical f actors affects employees productivity.Critical theorists states that organisation and physical structures are required as the organisation would not be able to function normally without a proper structure and hierarchy. However, they see it as a way to implement and insist control over employees. (Hatch and Cunliffe,2006). Critical theorist holds a different opinion in comparison to the modernist view on ideology as it feels that the modernist approach tends to exploit workers. They strive to enable the employees to be able to voice out against the management who make use of employees efforts. The critical theorists prefer to rely on the original structure (Burns & Stalker 1961) as it ensures flexibility, creativity and and tends to be less formalised.Organization CultureApple represents a significant part of modern culture in todays context. However, culture is a make-believe approach and does not really affect the company as a whole. Nonetheless, Apple makes full use of this app roach to successfully manipulate culture to please customers and profit off them.Analysis of Apple in Theoretical perspectiveThe two perspectives are used to define Apples positive outcomes of its successful business model and understand its shortcomings. Mordernist and critical theorist have different approach on power, control, perception of organizational and physical structures of organizations. Therefore a comparison between the two theories will allow us to have a better understanding of how a big organization like Apple operates.Apple is considered one of the most successful companies globally. It is considered one of the most iconic brands around the world. Their success didnot come until the introduction of iMac, iPhone and iPad series. In the modern world where people cannot live communications and networking, zip is an important factor which determines the consumers choices. Apple has managed to meet the consumers expectations of speed with an added advantage of its pr oducts being user-friendly.Modern PerspectiveModernist theorist feels that Apple is the perfect example as it sets a standard for other companies to model after. It has been discovered that Apple has eanings of over $400,000 in profit per employee. That is more than other global organisations such as Goldman Sachs, Exxon Monil or Google in 2011 (Duhigg & Bradsher, 2012). With the dreadful amount of profits, it usually means the company is doing well according to modernist theorist. Apples values of having a clear direction, individual accountability, sense of urgency, constant feedback and clarity of mission has helped to benefit them financially as well as winning the admiration of other organizations.Apples operating procedures at first had proper power and control salutary like any other organizations. This shows that they followed the hierarchy and implemented a bureaucratic system for the employees to bandage to. Apple believes doing this will enable to employees to improve into an elite workforce. However, when Steve Jobs became CEO, he introduced a different concept to the organisation. There were still power and authority at work but this was rearranged to keep the employees motivated at work.Apple also introduced the propose Responsible Individual, meaning that there were no confusion to the responsibilities of the individual that were assigned to handle as it was detail-orientated. Everybody is responsible for their own actions therefore the employees could take hook in their work. However, the control still works in a bureaucratic manner without compromising the flow of communication, therefore respecting the hierarchy of the organisation. (Clegg & Hauggard 2009). This in turn helps to cost increase Apples reputation as a professional and reputable company, giving rise to their stock prices that appealed to buyers.Apple has always outsourced its manufacturing procedures to foreign countries This has enabled them to source for set down paid wo rkers who were more than willing to take up the repetitive and tough jobs compared to their counterparts in America. They chose china because of its large population and cheap labour, with an average hourly rate of US $1.57 in 2008 (Froud, Johal, goer & Williams, 2012). They were able to produced on a massive scale with the large manpower working in its China factories. With the low business cost per unit, Apples gross margin per unit sold was high, raising its stock market value rising up to $343 billion (Froud, Johal, Leaver and Williams, 2012). Organizations around the world are now following in Apples footsteps by outsourcing their manufacturing procedures to other countries hoping to gain a higher profit margin.Critical PerspectiveCritical theorists criticize Apples operation approach as it feels that all it cares about is its profits and does not consider the needs of its employees. Although Apple claim to put less pressure and allow its employees to improve their creativity on by introducing the Direct Responsible Individual, Critical Theorists feels that the organisation is just making use of the employees ideas without giving them the due recognition or financial benefits generated from their own ideas. So the critical theorist is suggesting that Apples approach to organic fertiliser structure (Burns & Stalker 1961) is used just to exploit and control their workers by allowing them to feel a false sense of fulfilment.Critical theorist also motion Apples decision to outsource their manufacturing process to Foxcon. They feel that workers were exploited by the low wages and extensive working hours. Dangerous work environments with routinized procedures to adhere to further aggravate the working conditions for the employees of Foxcon. This has allowed Apple to reap tremendous profits at the expense of the workers wages and poorly constructed work environment. altogether these factors contributed to the unexpected suicide cases due to what employees have to face at Foxcon. Although Apple released a statement that it will try its best to improve the working conditions at Foxcon, critical theorists have doubts about their claims and believe they will continue to exploit their workers.Apple and its environmentThe organizational environment is external factors that will affect the organization. (Hatch & Cunliffe, 2006) The environment plays an important part for Apples growth and sustainbility as it is a big organization.Modern perspectivesModernist oversee the environment by observing and approaching it consistently and technologically. By relating to Apple, the organisation separates itself from its manufacturing facilities in China although it uses these resources for their input process. The products produced by the factories would then be sold internationally. As Apple is aware how the environment may affect or impede their financial progress, it sticks closely to the three environmental contingency theories to help them adap t.The first theory that modernist examine would be the Environmental Contingency Theory. This states that the organization structure should undergo changes to fit the current environment (Lawrence and Lorsch, 1967). In the context of Apple, this organization change in structure could be evident in the early 90s, where Apple attempts to reinvent its platforms and improve its products hardware. It also restructured the companys product line and introduced a new build-to-order manufacturing strategy. This adaptative approach has helped Apple final payment to profitability and combat other competition from other companies externally.The next theory will be the Resource Dependence Theory. This states that the environment has a tremendous influence over the organization. Therefore it must control their dependency on it and try to come up with counter strategies to the environment. (Lawrence and Lorsch, 1967). One of the examples that can be linked back to Apple would be how it outsourced its manufacturing processes to foreign countries. This shows that it is not dependent on its own labour resources but scout for cheaper alternatives instead. This theory has assisted Apple in the sense of not being too dependent of the resources found in its own country, allowing Apple to reap massive financial benefits in doing so.Finally, the last theory would be the Population Ecology theory. Organizational ecology gets information from the biology, economics, and sociology, and tries to rely on statistical analysis to grasp the conditions under which organizations emerge, grow, and die. (Hanan & Freeman, 1977) It is seen as a different option to gain a stronger hold to the adaptation perspective. Simplified, its the idea that environment affects organization structure, failure, and success. This happens when companies focus on surviving within an environment by being dependent on it to operate at a basic level (Hatch and Cunliffe 2006). Apples success has left many organisation s around to world trying to model after it in order to be gain financial benefits. Apple has set a benchmark for the organisations to rely on in order to survive. Therefore, Apple has successfully implemented certain strategies that allowed it to outlast the environment and still continue to do well.Critical perspectiveCritical theorists believe that Apple is a capitalist who make use of the environment to support their own company objectives. The management of Apple is seen as concentrating their efforts on profitable ideas instead of up organisational productivity and effectiveness. This makes the company develop a sense of invulnerability. Capitalist are able to gain control over societies to avoid making restitutions for poor social and environmental conduct. Over the years, Apple has managed to transformed from an American based company to a transitional corporation. It is able to operate and produce anywhere as long as the input resource is low in cost.Although Apple has helpe d boost Chinas economy and generate jobs and income for its citizens, critical theorist states that Apple only does this for their own financial interest. This can be seen from the exploitation of under-aged workers and the disregard for workers safety in a poorly constructed factory.Critical theorist also believes the fact that Apple is trying to gain monopoly of the workers through Taylorism approaches. This affects the employees in such a way that they have no other skills but to continue working for Apple. As the Chinese government does not want Apple to pull out of its country for the financial growth it is generating, it is coerced to comply with Apples unsuitable organisational practices.Finally, Apple also registered their organisation with NASDAQ. This will improve public awareness and recognition in the company within its environment as they can turn in future fund-raising capabilities by means of issuing share (Mcdowall, 2007). Achieving this would enable them to improv e their net worth and gain an upper standing in the financial world. This will allow them to dominate over the environments social network.ConclusionIn conclusion, through the two perspectives, it has allowed us to effectively see the differences in practices in Apple. It may be a correct organisational approach in the sense of a modernist view, but in a critical view, it focuses more on the social impacts Apple has on its employees. Therefore, the views only provide two different approaches of but not about whether it is a right or wrong practice. The theoretical perspective only serve as a rule of thumb in viewing the organisation in from different angles but is not a skilful benchmark to rely on for judgement of discernment.ReferencesAdam Lashinsky, Sr. Editor at Large 2011, How Apple works Inside the worlds biggest inauguration and Apples core Who does what.Bakan, Joel (2004) The Corporation (p5-27). New York Free PressBerg, Chris , 2012, West views poverty as a poison AppleBu rns, T & Stalker, GM1961, The focusing of Innovations, Tavistock Publications, LondonClegg, S., & Dunkerly, D. (1980). Organization, class and control. London Routledge and Kegan Paul.Duhigg Charles & Barboza David, 2012, Working themselves to deathFortune Magazine (2012) World Most Admired companyhttp// (viewed on 20th August)Hatch, MJ & Cunliffe, AL 2006, Organization Theory Modern , Symbolic , and Postmodern Perspectives, 2nd edn, Oxford University Press, England.Jenny Chan and Ngai Pun (2012) Suicide as Protest for the New Generation of Chinese migrant Workers Foxconn, Global Capital, and the StateJulie Froud, Sukhdev Johal, Adam Leaver, Karel Williams, 2012, Apple Business Model Financialization across the PacificLawrence, P., and Lorsch, J. (1967) Differentiation and Integration in Complex Organizations Administrative Science every quarter 12, 1-30.Max Weber, (2001) Introduction to Sociologyhttp// k/socsi/undergraduate/introsoc/weber11.htmlMcDowall, Len, 2007, publicly Listing a Company, the Advantages & Disadvantages, (http// T. Hannan and John H. Freeman (1977) The population ecology of organizations http//, P.J. and Barry, B. A. 1970. Organisational Development, London Longmans.

Thursday, May 23, 2019

Monarchial constitution Essay

Under the monarchial ecesis of the United pansydom (UK), the majority of privilege magnates are now exercised by the government in the name of the Crown. There are two principle definitions of Royal Prerogative (RP) that of Sir William Blackstone and that of Professor A. V. Dicey. According to Dicey, RP is defined as the residue of arbitrary or discretional authority, which at any given time is legally left in the hands of the Crown.RP has several defining characteristics RP is inherent to the Crown, derived from common law, exercised by the government on behalf of the crown, the powers are residual and RP legitimises government actions without the need for an make out of Parliament (AOP). Before the 17th century, the monarch had all three powers, the legislative, executive and judicial powers. The judiciary started gaining liberty since the Case of Prohibitions 1607 and was fully independent after the Act of Settlement 1700, which effectively removed the power of the monarch to remove a judge at will.The independence of the legislature started with the Case of Proclamation 1611 and culminated in the Bill of Rights 1689, which curbed future arbitrary behaviour of the monarch and guaranteed Parliaments power vis a vis the Crown. With these changes made to the UK constitution and as support grew for a democratic government, RP seemed out of place in the hands of the monarch and was slowly transferred into the hands of the government to be used in the name of the Crown.It is possible for RP to be codified i.e incorporated into an AOP, as can be seen from the Constitutional Reform and Governance Act 2010 (CRGA). The CRGA codified several RPs, much(prenominal) as the RP to ratify treaties. The codification of RP meant that it would be under parliamentary control and non the Executive. In the UK today, the UK government makes certain decisions based on the RP if they are not covered under any statutes. However, there have been several cases regarding the use of RP brought to the courts, spearheaded by Darnels case as well as the Case of channelize Money.The particular that these cases could be judged by the courts showed that the government (on behalf of the monarch) could exercise the license power granted by the courts. Therefore, the courts have the power to determine whether that prerogative power exists and the extent of the power exercised by the government. Codifying the RP ensures that courts would not have the power to determine its existence, as they are unable to determine the validity of an AOP, as directed by headmaster Reid in Pickin v British Railways Board.It would also prevent conflicts with statutes, as well as promote greater certainty and accessibility in the law. However, codifying the RP would make it more rigid, which whitethorn affect the reflexes of the government in responding to built in beds which are time-sensitive. Nevertheless, the current practice of the UK government with regards to such RP woul d be to consult Parliament first. Thus, it would be desirable to codify the RP. The RP has perpetually been a part of common law in the UK Constitution. In the Case of Proclamation 1611, then King James I declared two princely proclamations without the consent of Parliament.When the case was brought before the court, Lord Coke held that the King hath no prerogative, merely that which the law of the land allows him, meaning that the King could only exercise the prerogative power granted by the courts. Following the judgment, there were several cases which involved the use of the RP which the courts upheld. In Darnels case, the Defendant was imprisoned due to a fightfarerant disciplined from the King in which there was no reason for the imprisonment. The court held that the arrest was valid as this was the exercise of the monarchs prerogative power to arrest.The Case of Ship Money also exemplified how the court could decide if use of RP was legitimate. Hampden had refused to pay taxes to the King, upon his RP to raise revenue in an emergency situation. The court subsequently upheld the power of the Crown. Lastly, the judgment in Lord Advocate v University of Aberdeen upheld the RP that things lost, abandoned or ownerless belongs to the Crown. However, the courts have also held several decisions which restricted the RP. In BBC v Johns, BBC claimed there was a prerogative to grant immunity to them so as to avoid paying taxes.This case was famous for the dictum of Lord Diplock who stated that it is 350 years and a civil war too late for the Queens courts to broaden the prerogative. round feel that the exercise of prerogative powers was outside judicial review. Lord Devlin (in Chandler v DPP) agreed, but in his obiter statement stated that the courts will not review the proper exercise of discretionary power but they will intervene to correct trim or abuse. Despite this, not all prerogative powers are subjected to judicial review, the reviewability is depende nt on its subject matter and not the source of power.In the GCHQ case, Lord Roskill mentioned that Prerogative powers such as those relating to the making of treaties, the defence of the realm, the prerogative of mercy are not, I think, subjected to judicial review because of their nature and subject matter is such as not to be amendable to the judicial process. Thus, with RPs, courts would have the ability to judge whether they are implemented legitimately or not, dependent on the scope of the prerogative in question, but in the case regarding AOP, courts would not be able to question its validity, as stated by Lord Reid in Pickin (as above).This would be desirable as it would smoothen the relations between the Judiciary and Executive, with fewer conflicts between them. There are also situations whereby RP will be in conflict with statutes. As such, the Crown would not be able to exercise the prerogative power due to the doctrine of parliamentary Sovereignty. In AG v De Keysers Roy al Hotel, the Crown used the Royal Hotel during the First World War and the hotel later claimed for recompense under Defence Act 1842.Although the Crown concluded that no compensation should be paid since there was an RP to acquire any land of the subject during wartime, the court held that when the statutory power and prerogative power co-existed, statutory power would bowl over that of prerogative. Similarly, in R v Secretary of State for the Home Department, ex parte Fire Brigades Union, the Criminal Injuries Compensation Scheme set up under ministerial Prerogative powers was used instead of the Criminal Justice Act 1988, so as to save money by awarding less compensation. The court held that if there is a statutory scheme, it cannot be replaced by the RP.To prevent these scenarios from happening, Parliament has taken steps in new-fashioned years to incorporate some RP into statutes. For example, the Treasure Act 1996 states that the prerogative right of treasure trove has been abolished and replaced by this Act. The Human Rights Act 1998 protects citizens against arbitrary use of prerogatives, and the Fixed-Term Parliament Act 2011 has incorporated the RP of dissolution of Parliament. Hence with these recent developments, RP will be in less conflict with AOPs and more consistent with them, enabling them to be more certain and accessible to the public.There are naysayers of codifying the RP that argue that such an act would increase the rigidity of the process to achieve the intended result. Indeed, this is true as can be seen in the prerogative to declare war on other countries. For such a result, the government would need the operational flexibility and speed of deployment that the RP provides. By incorporating it into a statute, not only will the talent of the government be reduced, excess publicity that the AOP will bring would undermine the success of the operation.In addition, there will be situations where the government cannot await parliamentary approval due to time constraints. Be that as it may, in practice, the government in modern times have looked for Parliaments approval regarding the issue of war. In 2006, then Prime Minister Tony Blair, following his own vote over Iraq in 2003, acknowledged that he could not conceive of a situation in which a government is going to go to war except in the circumstances where immediate action is required without a full Parliamentary debate.The Iraq war vote was a significant precedent that Parliament should give its approval regarding such matters. Following which, Prime Minister David Cameron in 2011 held a Parliamentary debate on whether UK should establish a no-fly zone in Libya after the outbreak of military action. Lastly, in September 2013, a Parliamentary debate was called to demonstrate the possible military intervention in Syria after chemical weapons were allegedly used on civilians. By calling a vote, the government was ensuring continuing bond paper to the practice t hat Parliament should have a say in such issues.Hence, even if codifying the RP does increase rigidity, the process of ensuring Parliaments approval is already established. Some might feel that codifying the RP would be sacrificing UK history as they would be forgoing part of their culture which makes their unwritten constitution unique in todays world (inclusive of New Zealand and Israel). Nevertheless, the RP is considered by many to be an outdated power and is such an important one that it should not bypass democratic representation.

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

Personal Soundtrack Essay

Youre goanna miss this Word of God Speak Cartoon Song Friends Good Morning He give tongue to Where were you when the world stopped turning Outline Shes got it all My Life In a Nutshell exactly we want to be in 5, 10, or even 20 years. However, most of the time, those 5,10, and 20 year plans do not work out as we expected.We go through triumphs and tragedies we grow and learn and we eventually realize that what we open planned s probably going to change because we wealthy person changed. Over the course of my life, I have changed in a variety of ways and have overcame a number of challenges. Vive made plans for my life and most of them did not work out, besides looking back, I wouldnt change a thing. As a unripened child going through elementary school, I had a similar life to most of my friends. I spent most of my time at daycare, church, or with my family.I loved playing sports, watching TV and movies, and going to school. I remember going to church twice a week, for Sunday ser vices and Wednesday night programs. I loved the music at church, whether it was in Sunday school, holiday programs or Just regular church worship. Some of my favorite songs growing up were veg Tales Hairbrush Song (94-95), and Away in the Manger (96-97). Id sing these songs with my family, my friends, or even by myself because I loved to sing. At school, I didnt continuously fit in.I didnt acquit name brand clothes or pretty dresses, ND I didnt have the popular school supplies or toys. However, like most kids, I always wanted to fit in. I was good at sports, so I was often one of the first picked at recess for kickball. I also did what I could to learn who the popular music artists were and what songs they sang. One of the songs I learned to help fit it was Bye, Bye, Bye by NCSC (98-99). My parents didnt like us listening to pop music, but learning this song helped me feel like I somewhat fit in at school.

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

Postmodernism &Marketing

Due to its profound effect on individualistic side of consumer and consumption, it is inevitable wear marketing is also affected deeply by postmodernism. Hence, those who would like to make a long run and satisfying profit keep up to develop at least a basic understanding of the terms postmodern and postmodern marketing. It would be more convenient to open some basic friendship about postmodernism in the first place explaining its huge effect on the discipline of marketing.According to Encyclopedia Britannica postmodernism is defined as a late 20th-century movement characterized by broad skepticism, subjectivism, or relativism a general suspicion of reason and an acute sensitivity to the role of ideology in placeerting and maintaining lattice and economic power. Postmodernism can be viewed as a criticism to 20th century modernism. It is a resistance to modernist ideas much(prenominal) as freedom, progress and liberty. It is much more about destruction of gray theories, critic izing the modern and its values rather than proposing a solution to give order or something new.As First, Sherry and Venerates argue postmodernist looks for a universally accepted or hold upon principle that of tolerance and acceptance of difference. To sum up, while modernism has designed the grand projects to prevent failure, postmodernism as recognized such projects as failures themselves. After a brief explanation about postmodernism, it would be reasonable to give a marketing oriented definition of postmodernism before starting to discuss its huge find on the discipline of marketing.According to Gerri & Van Iraqi (1998) postmodernism can be defined as a cultural episode, characterized by a pluralism of styles (of consumption) and ideologies, a need for hyperthermy and egotism-expression through consumption. After contemplating on this brief definition, it would not be hard to conclude that postmodernism has had a profound effect on the consumption tatters of individuals. T herefore, companies have been forced to take individualistic differences into account and develop strategies based on their own target customer group.However, the influence of postmodernism on marketing and businesses is not contain to the change in consumer preferences or the change in consumption patterns. The structure of an organization, and the organizations relationship with its employees are also affected by the birth and extensive employ of the term postmodernism. To begin with the effect of the term postmodernism on the customer side, it can be argued that it has brought a new phenomenon of postmodern marketing. In the modern marketing, a family generally makes some standardization in terms of what a customer needs, wants or desires by evaluating the society as a whole.In the evaluation process, a absolute majority of them focus on the shared characteristics or personalities of customers and begin to make production and even customization according to a common, shared p erspective. Naturally, they have a tendency to trend customers who have a very different worldview, personality, preference or choice. Thus, those who make production do not have to worry about the diversity of customers in terms of attitudes, perception, personality etcetera Since they produce goods and armed services in massive amounts and then advertise these goods and services to masses.Then, they expect their products to be consumed without any challenge by different consumer demands. This situation is partly a result of homogeneity and masculinity concepts of modernism. However, with postmodernism all these approaches have been affected. Unless having an understanding about the diversity of consumer behavior, a firm powerfulness not be able to hose its target customer group correctly, which is a situation that makes its production meaningless, since in the end the product or service might end up with appealing to no one.Also, in todays world companies have to give much imp ortance to different groups such as gays, lesbians, gypsies etc. Since they have become to constitute a portion of the society that is not negligible. In fact those who took a quicker action than others to offer production or services appealing totally to such groups have made enormous profit. Moreover, the masculine agriculture has been placed by a more feminine culture in many areas of business due to the change in consumption patterns. For example, during ass Marlboro was using fancy letters. Then, it turned out that Marlboro was started being cited as womens cigarette.With this unwitting impression, Marlboro immediately changed its letter type and started to use its famous masculine cowboy commercials. If this situation occurred in postmodernist era, most probably a majority of sight would criticize Marlboro and stop buying, since Marlboro implicitly suggests that it does not give much value to its women customers. When considering all these, it can be clearly defended that d ue to the profound influence of postmodernism on marketing, a vast amount of companies have shifted from forbids, mass consumption based approaches to post-forbids, individualistic based approaches.To continue with the structure of organizations, it might be asserted that before the birth of the term postmodernist most of the companies had adopted the principles of forbids. Believing the quality of stability, homogeneity and control and they followed the rules of a masculine culture. Their organization structures were strictly hierarchical. Hence, there was a monumental rower distance among different levels of management. However, after postmodernism came to scene, the effectiveness of the bureaucratic organization culture during turbulent, unpredictable or complex times has been questioned.Many new beneficial concepts such as employee empowerment, flat organization structure have been created and emphasized. Afterwards, organizational design becomes more flat, since it is widely b elieved that one of the most significant factors carrying a company to succeeder is the active participation of employees. As the organization becomes more flat, the communication link among different levels of management gets stronger which contributes to the creation of new innovative ideas. Moreover, companies culture has been changed dramatically with postmodernism.During the ass, ass company environment was homogeneous, outer directed, and factory based, since at those times a majority of firms believed the strength of stability. On the other hand with the postmodernism, company environment has been shifted to heterogeneous, self centered and democratic business culture. The motivation behind this situation is that companies have become to experience that creation of unique ideas in terms of production of goods or services is very much elated with the diversity of employees. Within an organization where everybody has a different personality, preference, perception etc. T woul d be more probable to make production that fits customers well. Therefore, in todays world those who can manage disorder and variety more effectively have a better chance to dish up well and make sufficient profit. To conclude, with the rise of postmodernist ideas, as Stephen (1992) put forward that firms have been forced to prefer disorder to order, surface to depth, past to personate, present to future, heterogeneity to homogeneity, plurality to nonsense, differences to similarities, complexity to simplification, rhetoric to logic and individuality to universality.All in all, the term postmodern has profoundly affected the discipline of marketing as it has a deep influence on almost all social and intellectual endeavors such as sociology, philosophy, politics, history, economics etc. With the rise of postmodern marketing, companies have started to give careful consideration not only to the customer differences but also to their own organizational and cultural structure. While c onstructing a more friendly and participatory organizational environment, impasses have started to offer a variety of solutions and answers to the demand of different customer groups.

Monday, May 20, 2019

Agriculture to economic

Agriculture is central to frugal harvest-feast and victimisation in Pakistan. Being the dominant empyrean it contri savees 21. 4 part to GDP, employs 45 percentageage of the countrys labour force and contributes in the festering of other domains of the economy. During 2012-13, party farm sector exhibited a growth of 3. 3 percent on the back of arrogant growth in factory farm related sub sectors, Crops grew at 3. 2 percent, Livestock 3. 7 percent, Forestry 0. 1 percent and Fishing 0. 7 percent. The agriculture subsector component which includes authorized dresss other percent respectively.As the cognitive operation of agriculture sector dependent upon weather condition, timely availability of gossip (water). During 2012-13 weather condition and water situation has an impact on these Kharif crops that paved the way for decrease in output of rice and cotton crops. Agriculture growth percentages (Base=2005-06) Other crops that contributed 12. 3 percent shelter addendum in agriculture witnessed a absolute growth of 6. 7 percent in 2012-13 against negative growth of 7. 7 percent during the same period stretch forth twelvemonth. The cotton ginning under new base 2005-06 has been include in agriculture nurse addition showed a negative growth of 2.9 percent in 2012-13 against the positive growth of 13. 8 percent during the same period last year. The Livestock sector which has a 55. 4 percent share in the agriculture grew by 3. 7 percent in 2012-13. The Fishing sector grew by 0. 7 percent as against last years positive growth of 3. 8 percent. Forestry sector posted a nominal growth of 0. 1 percent this year as compared to positive growth of 1. 7 percent last year. Pakistan has two crop seasons, Kharif being the first sowing season scratch from April-June and harvested during October December. Rice, sugarcane, cotton, maize, moong, mash, bajra and jowar are Kharif crops.Rabi, the second sowing season, begins as on October-December and is harvested i n April-May. stalk, gram, lentil (masoor), tobacco, rapeseed, barley and mustard are Rabi crops. The crops surgical operation is dependent upon timely availability of irrigation water. During 2012-13, the availability of water as an essential input for Kharif 2012 was 14 percent less than the normal supplies but to compare with Kharif 2011, it was 4. 4 percent less. The water availability during Rabi season 2012-13 was estimated 31. 9 MAF, which was 12. 4 percent less than the normal availability, but 8. 5 percent higher(prenominal) than last years Rabi crop Crop situationImportant croops, such as wheat, rice, maize, cotton and sugarcane tarradiddle for 25. 2 percent of the value added in overall agriculture and 5. 4 percent to GDP. The other crops trace for the 12. 3 percent of the value added in overall agriculture. Live stock contributes 55. 4% to agriculture value added much more then the combine contribution of all-important(a) and other crops. ( 37. 6%). The action perfo rmance of important crops is given in table. a. Important crops i) Cotton Pakistan economy depends heavily on cotton crop significantly contribute by providing raw material to the textile industry, such as cotton lint as an export item.It account for 7. 0% of value added in agriculture and 1. 5% of GDP. During 2012-13 the crops was on area of 2879 universal gravitational constant heacters, 1. 6% more then last year(2835 special K heacters). The product of 13. 0 million bales during the period2012-13 against the target of 14. 5 million bales resulted in decline of 13. 0% against the target and decrease of 4. 2 percent over the preliminary year production which was 13. 6 million bales. Mild attack of Thrips, white fly and cotton leafage curl virus (CLCV) adversely effected the production of cotton boll which effected the production and yield per heacter as compare to last year.ii)Sugarcane Sugarcane crops occupies an important position in national economy in tack together to dri ve the large sugar industry. It also provide the material to clipboard, paper and ethanol. It share in value added in agriculture and GDP is 3. 2 and 0. 7% respectively. Sugarcane crops was cultivated on an area of 1124 mebibyte hecters,6. 2% more then last years area of area of 1058 thousand hecters. The main factor contributed to higher production where more area brought under cultivation due(p) to economic fade received by the grower, good management of crops and application of balance doze of inputs. iii)RiceRice is an important hard currency crop of coutry. Rice production comprises 40 percent of Basmati (Fine) type and 60% of coarse types. Rice ranks as second amongst the staple food grain crop in Pakistan and it has been a major reference of impertinent exchange earnings in recent years. Pakistan grows a high forest of rice to fulfil the national demand and also for exports. Rice accounts 2. 7 percent of the value added in agriculture and 0. 6 percent of GDP. iv) Whe at Wheat is an essential diet of population and occupies a central position in agriculture polices of the government. The government announced wheat support price of R.s 1200 which created interest on the part of demesne community. Wheat contributes 10. 1% to the value added in agriculture and 2. 2% to GDP. Area under wheat emergence to 8693 thousand hecter in 2012-13 from 8650 thousand hecters masking an increase of 0. 5% over lats years area. Other crops During 2012-2013,the production of Gram, the largest Rabi pulses crop in Pakistan, stood at 673 thousand tones, against 284 thousand tones of last year, showing an increase of about 137. 0 percent due to increase in area and favorable weather condition, while production of bajra change magnitude 2. 0 percent.This is in contrast to other crops like jawar, Rapeseed & Mustard, Barley and tobacco showed an decline in production of 10. 9 percent, 6. 7 percent, 6. 0 percent and 1. 0 percent, respectively, in 2012-13 as compared to the corresponding period last year. Oilseed The major oilseed crops include cottonseed, sunflower, canola and rapeseed / mustard. Although the cotton crop is grown for its lint, cottonseed contributes 50 to 60 percent to local anaesthetic edible oil production. During the year 2011-12, the constitutional availability of edible oil was 2. 748 million tonnes. local anaesthetic production of edible oil is remained 0.636 million tonnes while imports were 2. 148 million tonnes. The import bill during 2011-12 stood at Rs. 216. 4 billion (US$ 2. 426 billion). During the year 2012-13 (July-March), 1. 738 million tonnes of edible oil valued at Rs. 153. 3 billion (US$ 1. 595 billion) has been imported. The local production during 2012-13 (July-March) was 0. 612 million tonnes. Total availability of edible oil from all sources is provisionally estimated at 2. 35 million tonnes during 2012-13 (July-March). II. Farm Inputs i) Fertilizer Fertilizer is the most important and expensive input.Con tribution of balanced fertilization towards increased yield is from 30 to 50 percent in different crop production regions of the country. One kg of fertilizer nutrient produces about 8 kg of cereals (wheat, maize and rice), 2. 5 kg of cotton and 114 kg of stripped sugarcane. Almost hundred percent soils in Pakistan are deficient in nitrogen, 80 to 90 percent are deficient in phosphorus and 30 percent in potassium. Wide fete deficiency of micronutrients are also appearing in different areas. Soil fertility is continuously depleting due to mining of essential plant nutrients from the soils under intensive cultivation. ii) Improved seedQuality seed wantons a pivotal case in boosting agricultural production both in market oriented and subsistence farming system. Seed has the unique position among various agricultural inputs because the effectiveness of all other inputs mainly depends on the potential of the seeds. Seed is a high technology product and is an innovation most readily ad apted. ameliorate access to good quality of seed is a critical requirement for sustainable agricultural growth and food bail. Effective use of improved/certified seed can result in higher agricultural production and increases the net income which has a positive impact on inelegant development.Hence, availability of quality seed of improved varieties is essential to master the production targets. iii) Mechanization Mechanization of agriculture plays an important role in increasing agricultural production. Mechanization of agriculture is crucial to achieve self sufficiency and surpluses through with(predicate) with(predicate) and through increasing productivity and reducing pre and post harvest losses. The government is making all efforts to modernize its agriculture and its allied fields more efficiently and productively. The use of efficient and quality farm machinery and equipment play an important role in the sowing and harvesting of agriculture crops.During July-March 2012- 13 a total number of 36121 tractors were produced in the country, showing an increase of 34. 6 percent as compared to 26840tractors produced during the same period last year. iv) Irrigation Water is an important input to achieve the agriculture growth and is considered to be the lifeline of agriculture activities. Pakistan has a good irrigation canal network but temperatures and rainfalls during sowing and harvesting season has its own unique importance. III. Livestock and Poultry a) LivestockThe livestock sector occupies a unique position in the National Agenda of economic development . The sector provides net source of foreign earnings. Historically livestock has been dominated by small holders to meet their needs of milk, food security and cash income on daily basis. Moreover, livestock is considered a source of employment generation at homespun level, helping to reduce income variability. It is central to the livelihood of the rural poor in the country and can play an important role in poverty alleviation and keep in uplifting the socio-economic condition of our rural masses.b) Poultry Poultry sector is one of the most organized and vibrant segments of the agriculture industry of Pakistan. This sector generates employment (direct/indirect) and income for about 1. 5 million people. Its contribution in agriculture is 5. 76 percent, livestock 10. 4 percent and in GDP at constant cost factor 1. 2 percent. Poultry gist contributes 26. 8 percent of the total meat production in the country. Poultry sector has shown a healthy growth 7-8 percent annually which reflects its inherent potential. The poultry value added at constant cost factor has increased from Rs.113465 million (2011-12) to Rs. 121726 million (2012-13) showing an increase of 7. 3 percent as compared to previous year. Fisheries fishery plays an important role in Pakistans economy and is considered to be a source of livelihood for the coastal inhabitants. A part from marine fisheries, inland fisher ies (based in rivers, lakes, ponds, dams etc. ) is also very important occupation throughout the country. Fisheries share in the GDP although very little but it adds substantially to the national income through export earnings. During (July-March), 2012-13 a total of 103,822 m.tonnes of fish and fishery products were exported earning US $ 232. 4 million against a total of 90,087 m. tonnes of fish and fishery products were exported earning US $ 222. 6 million corresponding period last year showing an increase of 15. 3 percent and 4. 4 percent respectively. Future Plans Consequent upon 18th Constitutional Amendment, the savage health and production subject have been early policy priorities therefore revolve around the pursual strategies. Encouraging Public Private Partnership direct development with government providing enabling environment. National economic growth.Encouraging livestock sector role and use as tool for poverty alleviation & food security. kick upstairs foreign exchange earnings through exports of livestock products with focus on halal food market. future policy priorities therefore revolve around the following strategies. Encouraging Public Private Partnership led development with government providing enabling environment. National economic growth. Encouraging livestock sector role and using as tool for poverty alleviation & food security. Enhance foreign exchange earnings through exports of livestock products with focus on halal food market.

Sunday, May 19, 2019

Management and Organizational Behavior Essay

This is a reaction paper on the disk Leadership and Self Deception Getting out of the Box, by the Arbinger Institute. This give then discuss how I felt about the topic in the book and the reasons why. The book is about self conjuring trick which is described in dialogue between Tom Callum, a new employee for senior counselling position Zagrum Company, with bud Jefferson, the executive vice president of the same company. An excerpt of the dialogue is quoted below with Bud Jefferson talking to Tom Callum saying the following words The bigger problem was that I couldnt hitch that I had a problem. Bud paused for a moment, and then, leaning forward toward me, he said in a lower, even more earnest tone, There is no tooth root to the problem of lack of commitment, for example, without a solution to the bigger problemthe problem that I cant see that Im not committed. Bud also added Tom, theres a technical name for the insistent blindness I exhibited in San Francisco. Philosophers c all it self-deception. At Zagrum we retain a less technical name for itwe call it world in the box. In our way of talking, when were self-deceived, were in the box. From the above the word self deception is defined. We will use the meaning in the following paragraphs. If self deception is incapacity to see the earthly concern of the problem, the next question is Could it happen to everyone? Dr. Peck said Life is series of problem. If there is truth in what Dr. has said then self-deception could happen to everyone because every body will really have a problem. therefrom the issue should be to become aw be of the problem so that solutions could be made accordingly. Hence Dr.Peck suggested that check over is the basic tool we require to solve biographys problems. He argued that without discipline we can solve nothing and that with only approximately discipline we can solve only some problem and with total discipline we can solve all problems. Given that problem solving is a reality, failure therefore to see that there is a problem could be a riskinessous or pathetic situation. To illustrate, I had a friend who just did not know that he is sick and that he is dying of cancer which he failed to detect earlier.Before he realized to do some barroom he was already dead. In the case of every living thing, failure to recognize the problem is the about damaging because that would mean wrong use of freedom and intelligence bestowed to us. This applies to business organization since they also have life to sustain. They moldiness continue to serve their customers oppositewise these organizations are sick or in danger of dying. What could be the consequences of self deception? Not knowing what the problem is, one cannot solve the problem.Not world able to solve the problem will cause the problem to create more pressure and the greater the pressure the less are the available choices. In psychology we have the so called neurosis and image disorders which are the result of the result not balancing responsibility. When one anticipates too much responsibility he is neurotic, while the one with character disorder assumes little. That could be also the consequence for people who will assume too much problem and those who simply cannot see that there is a problem.In the book that we are reacting upon, character disorder as a consequence would be the closest thing to happen. The consequence for impuissance to heal the disorder is delay in emotional maturity. If we apply that to Zagrum, that would be restricting the normal product of the company that could amount to killing the company slowly. How then to solve self deception? Discipline by dint of openness and transparency is the best solution. People must be ready to accept accusation especially if they are true since that is the only way where one would not have him self-deceived.We need the eyes of different to reflect what is hidden in us. Socrates said that we should know ourselves an d that could be found in disclosing about ourselves to other so that they get reflected to others who will help us see the truth in us. This is one of the lessons of the book on Self-deception as dreamed by Bud for the Zagrum Company. Bud was quoted saying to Tom At Zagrum, Tom, our top strategic initiative is to minimize individual and organizational self-deception. Bud did have good realize about self deception which he wanted to impart to Tom.He realized that problem would be most damaging. Self deception may not be easily recognized by some or they may get hidden because of stubbornness, pride and simply ignorance. Although an open person is vulnerable, there are more advantage to self-disclosure than self-deception, the consequences of which are simply damaging. To conclude, it may be stated that a problem that one-half well define it half solved. Wrongly defined problem is not solving the problem. Avoiding the problem will cause problem to run after you. A health organizatio n accepts the reality of problems because of objectives set.Objectives-attainment involves series of problems that must be anticipated and solved. A problem in life is bound to arise and the reality is that life is difficult. Indeed life is a series of problem to be solved, hence by not acknowledging the problem, there is an attempt to escape what is reality and to escape reality would be more painful in the hanker run. Work Cited Peck, S. The Road Less Traveled, Simon and Schuster, 1978 Arbinger Institute , Excerpts of Leadership and Self Deception. Getting out of the Box, web document URL, http//www. arbinger. com/C2/ArbingerHome/default. aspx? Page=Home, Accessed October 30,2006

Saturday, May 18, 2019

Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) Essay

Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) argon quantitative and qualitative measuring rods used to review an brasss progress against its goals. These are broken down and set as targets for deed by departments and individualistics. The achievement of these targets is reviewed at symmetric intervals. KPIs are used to monitor the military operation of a company, department, process or tear down an individual machine. They go away also help shape the behaviors of employees within the company. KPIs need to be flexible and forge the changing goals of the judicature. Goals wobble as the constitution win overs in reaction to external factors or as it gets next to achieving its original goals. Individual KPIs need to be directly linked to organization goals and objectives, or overall organization KPIs where they are used.They need to reflect organization culture and values, by indicating the types of behavior and executing the organization will recognize as successful and reward empl oyees for. KPIs need to be measurable and reflect a relaxation between operational and people orientated measures. KPIs are a fundamental component of sustaining a change process and maintaining a performance management culture. KPIs should be aligned with the organizations vision and direction. When performance is measured, and the results are made visible, organizations can take action to improve. SMART KPIsThe acronym SMART is often used to delineate KPIs.SpecificMeasurableAchievableRelevantTimelySpecificKPIs need to be specific to the individual wrinkle and if possible expressed as statements of actual on-the-job behaviors. For example, a KPI shouldExplain clearly to the employee what he/she has to do in terms of performance to be successful Have an shock on successful job performance, that is distinguishing between effective performance and ineffective performanceFocus on the behavior itself, alternatively than personality attributes such as attitude to customers. Terms suc h as work grapheme, and job knowledge are too vague to be of much use. MeasurableKPIs must be measurable, that is ground on behavior that can be observed and documented, and which is job-re deeplyd. They should also provide employees with ongoing feedback on their measuring rod of performance. AchievablePerformance management needs to be an open, collaborative communication process. KPIs must be seen by all that they are achievable. The KPI must be realistically achievable. If it is set too high for the circumstances (such as an ambitious production target), not only will it be irrelevant but it will find failure. RelevantIt is essential that employees clearly understand the KPIs, and that they have the same meaning to both parties. Consultation is to a greater extent likely to result in standards that are relevant and valid. TimelyKPIs should have an appropriate condemnation frame.It should be possible to collect the relevant information either as it happens or within a piteo us time afterwards, otherwise it will lose its relevance. As outputs of the performance management system, KPIs also need to be in alignment with other HR-related functions, including training and increment, recruitment and selection, rewards and recognition, and career planning. Business aspects that require KPIsKPIs should cover every aspect of the business. Sample examples are Customer satisfactionEmployee satisfactionStaff turnoverAbsenteeismDepartment/ share specific measuresTriple bottom line financial, environmental and social responsibility Finance including revenue and costOHS reporting including incidents and related costsEquipment usage and OEEMaintenance costs and effectivenessNew product development & innovationLead times and down timesQualityKPI componentsKPIs should identify the required outcomes, for exampleThe nominal acceptable performance e.g. quotidian break even point Target performance eg desired daily output.KPIs shouldBe communicated to all staff so that t hey are aware of how they are to be measured and how their KPIs impact on the organization as a whole Be aligned with the vision and direction of the organization Have relevant reward and recognition criteria linked to each KPI. When implementing new KPIs, having baseline data to measure improvements is very important. Progress on KPIs should be communicated at timed times to highlight emerging trends. As these trends emerge, corrective action can be implemented in a timely fashion. KPIs need to be communicated via multiple media. The measures that are selected must be carefully specified to ensure they do not start non-lean behaviors. In many cases there will need to be a selection of measures that balance quality and quantity factors to ensure the correct behaviors are encouraged. Listed below are some examples of the behaviors and outcomes that measure in isolation can cause.Measure in isolation Behavior OutcomeProduction output Make more OverproductionMachine efficiency Run machine longerRun in most expeditious sequence for machine Unnecessary stock Customer orders lateMaintenance costs Reduction in maintenance activities to reduce costs Machine breakdowns Cash flow performance Pay suppliers as late as possible Supplier deliveries XX unreliable Creating KPIsKPIs must be designed for each proposed change to the production process so that There is a base line measurement taken to make a starting performance standard There are measures developed to track the squadsperformance There are measures established that can highlight any variability. This can assist in future diagnoses Reward and recognition can be effectively implemented.Before data is collected tierce questions need to be asked.What is the purpose of collecting this data?Will this data tell us what we wish to know?Will we be able to act on the data we collect?The goal is to produce an easy-to-use, accurate measurement system with as few measures as possible. The following questions need to be answered when fit up a data collection system What type of metric is it (financial, behavioral or core-process)? why was it selected?Where will the data be collected?How will it be collected?How often will it be collected?How often and where will the metric be displayed?Who will use it?KPI examplesSome examples of measures that can be used to monitor the performance of a competitive manufacturing company are listed below. Financial Examples embodys square costsLabor costsOperations costsInventoryOvertimeWarrantee costsCost of SalesInterest on overdraftNumber of projects completed on time and on budget tax income SalesGross marginsReturn on assets or investmentProduct profitability squad up metrics OvertimeMaterial costsRevenue generated by teamInventory value in teams areaNumber of projects completed on time and on budgetCore metrics ExamplesOHS Lost time injuriesNumber of staff off workLength of time staff are off workDIFOT Delivery in full on timeQuality First time throug h qualityYieldLead-time Order to cash in bankRaw material to set downDock to dockInventory Inventory turnover rateOEE Overall equipment effectiveness inscription performance % Changes to the weekly scheduleValue added ratio Ratio of value adding time to lead timeTeam metrics Turnaround time for jobsOutput placeQuality ratesEquipment OEEAttendance ratesSchedule complianceCustomer feedbackNumber of deadlines/milestones metMetrics relating to specific team tasksBehavioral metrics ExamplesEmployee satisfaction Gained from regular Employee Satisfaction Surveys Staff turnover ratesParticipation levels in improvement activitiesCustomer satisfaction Gained from regular Employee Satisfaction Surveys Retention ratesSkill uptake Skill matricesAbsenteeism AbsenteeismError rates Error ratesTime spent on managing under-performing staffTeam metrics Number of team meetingsMembers at team meetingsNumber of ideas generatedNumber of ideas implementedTotal Savings generated

Friday, May 17, 2019

Baker v. Carr (1962)

In 1962, the US exacting Court had decided over the bread maker v. Carr case. The bread maker v. Carr case was a landmark US autonomous Court case which at last withdrawn from its political question doctrine to come to a conclusiveness about the reapportionment concerns. The express case was brought up by the urban voters in electric resistance to the Tennessee Secretary of country and Attorney Gen. in the United States District Court of Middle Tennessee. Tennessee was unsuccessful to reapportion the solid ground legislature for about 60 years in spite of the growth of the population and redeployment.Charles Baker was a voter who filed a case against the secernate-and Joe Carr was a state officer who was in command of elections- in federal district court. Moreover, before the US unequivocal Court gives their decision about the case, majority of the legislative districts throughout Ohio and in several states didnt fuddle the same numbers in terms of their population rate s (see Baker v. Carr. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Ed. P. 3865, 2004). This would definitely signify that a representative may perchance represent about 100,000 populations in each district whereas the new(prenominal)s may possibly represent 500,000.In Ohio, every clownish had its own undecomposed to have a legislator in the Ohio presidency prior to Baker v. Carr. During 1960, Franklin County had more(prenominal) than 300,000 inhabitants whereas Vinton County had and 11,000 populaces. In the previous system, every country has a legislator but in Baker v. Carr case, each county did non longer have the right to receive a legislator (see Baker v. Carr. OhioHistoryCentral. org, 2006). The focal points of this study are to(1) grapple the historical background on Baker v.Carr case(2) discuss the facts of the case and its courts public opinion and(3) be aware of the impact of Baker and Carr case on American government and society.Discussion A. Historical BackgroundThe compl ainant Charles Baker resided in Shelby County, Tennessee- the county where Memphis is situated- and was a Republican. Bakers protest was that even though the Tennessee State ecesis necessitated that legislative districts be redrawn after 10 years as utter by the federal study to give districts of substantively even inhabitants, , Tennessee was unavailing to redistrict since from the population count during 1900.During the court case of Baker, the district of Shelby County-where Baker resides- had more populations just like other rural districts have. Bakers argument pointed out that this inconsistency caused him unable to have the equal protection under the laws as stated by the Fourteenth Amendment. On the other hand, Joe Carr was litigated in his status as the Secretary of States for Tennessee. Joe Carr did not set the district lines because it was done by the state parliament but then, a case was filed against him as the person who was the most liable and accountable for the district maps publication and for conducting elections in the state.The State of Tennessee claimed and disputed that legislative districts were fundamentally political and not judicial as had been engrossed by a number of Courts opinion in Colegrove v. Green in 1946 which Justice Felix Frankfurter announced that Courts ought not to enter this political market (see U. S. Supreme Court baker v. Carr, 369 U. U. 186 (1962). Findlaw. com, 2006). B. The Facts of the Case Charles W. Baker and several Tennessee inhabitants suspected that a 1901 decree designed to allocate the seats for the familiar Assembly of the state was practically disregarded.The lawsuit of Baker comprehensively discussed on how the reapportionment efforts of Tennessee disregard literal and important economic development and population modification within the state (see Baker v. Carr 369 U. S. 186 (1962). Oyez. org). C. Courts Ruling C. 1 The Laws Applied *U. S. Const. amend. XIV U. S. Const. art. III *42 U. S. C. 1 983 Tenn. Const. art.The most awaited result was at last given in March 1962, almost a year after it was originally disputed. The ruling of Baker v. Carr was considered as one of the major wrenching in the history of the Court.The Supreme Court stated that the federal courts have the authority to regulate and decide the constitutionality of the voting of a states districts as stated in a 6-2 ruling. Justice William J. Brennan, Jr. put in writing the common opinion, declaring that the constitutional right of the complainant or plaintiff to receive their votes count impartially provided them the essential and required lawful enliven to carry out the court case. He disputed that the case did not include a political question which stopped and prohibited judicial review.A court may possibly regulate the constitutionality of the apportionment decisions of the State without intervening with the political judgments of the legislature. Moreover, Baker v. Carr case was sent back to the fede ral court (see Baker v. Carr (1962). Infoplease, Pearson fostering 2005). Justice William O. Douglas wrote down conforming judgment. He announced that If a voter does not whatsoevermore have the full constitutional value of his franchise (right to vote), and the legislative branch fails to take appropriate restorative action, the doors of the courts must be open (see Baker v. Carr (1962). Infoplease, Pearson education 2005).However, in a conflicting view, Justice John Harlan II disputed and wrote that The federal equal protection clause does not prevent a State from choosing any electoral legislative structure it thinks best suited to the interests, temper, and customs of its people. If a state chose to distribute electoral strength among geographical units, rather than according to a census of population is a rational decision policy entitled to equal respect from this Court (see Baker v. Carr (1962).Infoplease, Pearson Education 2005).ConclusionThe court declared that at that place were no questions that need to be answered in Baker v. Carr case and the parliamentary apportionment was a justify concern. Justice William Brennan had cited previous cases in which the Court interfered to amend constitutional infringements in issues which pertain to state government and the officials by whom state affairs are organized (see Baker v. Carr 369 U. S. 186 (1962). Oyez. org). D. The impact of Baker and Carr case on American Government and SocietyThe impact of Baker and Carr case on American government and society was that the said landmark decision had made a way for many lawsuits on legislative apportionment. Because of the Baker v. Carr case, by the year of 1967, voters from Ohio altered and revised the state constitution. The revision made a ninety-nine seat state House and a thirty-three seat state Senate. The said revision set up and created as well that every representative and senator should receive about the similar number of populations as required by th e US Supreme Court. The Baler and Carr case and the modified constitution of Ohio was an uninterrupted outcome of urbanization.In the middle of the 20th century, several individuals dead soul from rural areas and transferred to cities. The major cause for the said relocation was the deteriorating chances in the countryside. While in the cities, they ever more provided good high paying jobs and various employment opportunities. In Baker v. Carr case, the U. S. Supreme Court tried and true to make an effort to amend the subsequent dilemmas in political representation (see Baker v. Carr. OhioHistoryCentral. org, 2006).References1. Baker v. Carr. OhioHistoryCentral. org, 2006. http//www. ohiohistorycentral. org/entry. php? rec=1399.2. U. S. Supreme Court baker v. Carr, 369 U. U. 186 (1962). Findlaw. com, 2006. http//caselaw. lp. findlaw. com/scripts/getcase. pl? court=US&vol=369&invol=186.3. Baker v. Carr 369 U. S. 186 (1962). Oyez. org. http//www. oyez. org/oyez/resource/case/25/.4. Baker v. Carr (1962). Infoplease, Pearson Education 2005. http//www. infoplease. com/us/supreme-court/cases/ar02. html.5. Baker v. Carr. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Ed. P. 3865. Columbia University Press, New York, 2004).

Thursday, May 16, 2019

Heroic Criminals Essay

All finishedout childhood we atomic number 18 taught that breaking the fairness is bad and the people who do ar criminals and should be punished. Edward Abbey, informant of The Monkey Wrench Gang, and Carl Hiaasen, author of Sick Puppy, alter these thoughts. Both refreshings focus on adventuresome environmentalists who bicker up trouble in means of al-Qaidaing up for their beliefs. Both Abbey and Hiaasen construct higher(prenominal) and instinctive laws over the traditional justice governance that drop deads characters justification for their actions.Ethically we as humans should not look with these rebellious characters, but the theme is so central in the books cover-to-cover that we, as readers, lose sight of moral philosophy as the authors manipulate us to be tot up completely invested in these heroic criminals. With sharp expenditures of characterization and description, Edward Abbey glorifies the machination of law breaking and leaves his readers cheering for the heroic criminals. Throughout The Monkey Wrench Gang, the group of four activists send out to destroy bridges, signs, bulldozers and anything else harming the American southwest.From the very originatening, Abbey illustrates a scene full of the workings of the justice system in his prologue. When describing the ceremony to open the bridge he states, the bridge stands clear and empty except fora emblemic barrier of red, white and blue ribbon stretched across the bridge from rail to rail (3). If the instinct of patriotism wasnt evident enough through images of children eating ice cream c matchlesss and people potable Coca-Cola before that, Abbey drapes the bridge in the colors of our nations flag.His portrayal of the project square offms to be adored and al more than or less sponsored by America. He uses the writing technique of verisimilitude throughout the prologue to captivate readers and make them anxious to see who disapproves the project. This is a professedly introductio n and welcoming to rebellious characters. As the novel progresses, we become familiar with the gang Hayduke, fair, Seldom Seen and Doc, as they are driving through billboard signs. Some readers might lose respect for the characters because their actions seem insincere and pointless.Their actions are against the law. But then Abbey soft develops the characters and gives them justification for these criminal actions. He does this with Hayduke criticizing the construction of bridges, They cant do that it aint legal. Theres a law against it. A higher law (27). The phrase higher law justifies the gangs destruction because they are taking a stand to save the environment, the well-favored American southwest. As destruction projects get bigger, we bring ourselves rooting for these criminals because they are heroes.And we find ourselves captivated in the novel with Abbeys clever use of an episodic plot. He arranges plot elements into a story and although we arent deep into the character s lives, the focus on episodes drives us forward. As Abbey slowly develops the protagonist characters, he introduces the character, Bishop Love, who we as readers coin as the antagonist. Once again Abbey manipulates our morals as we begin hating the character who could possibly bring down our rebels. Bishop Love exclaims, We might get them on the Mann Act come to think of it-crossing the state line for immoral purposes (296).The fact that the Mann Act was first established to regulate prostitution across state lines cleverly draws us against the bishops character and law in general. Abbeys use of an actual law brings the entire chase back to reality as we still see ourselves railroad siding with the heroic criminals. Abbey actually realizes this chase into a war and the heroic criminals become heroic war veterans. As the chase continues, Hayduke once again defines this higher sense of law and justification for war, I sat in that rotting jungle every night, playing with my chain, and all I could think about was home.And I simulatet mean TucsonI thought about the canyons (359). This is a very lively twist on the patriotic term war because when we think of war we think of Americans waiver into another country. Here, Americans are in a war in America against other Americans. And because of this, someone is breaking the law or going against the law. As true as that statement is, we find ourselves naming the criminals as the war heroes through Abbeys manipulation. Although in the end these heroes are captured and the project seems to be brought to an end, the denouement proves to serve poetic justice.The epilogue consists of Doc, Bonnie and Seldom being almost immediately bailed out of jail, Bishop Love in slow recovery, and the survival of the most prominent environmentalist, Hayduke. Such a fitting ending for our manipulated beliefs. Similarly to Edward Abbeys manipulation of our morals through characterization and development, Carl Hiaasen uses the same tech niques within the theme of criminal heroes. Right off the bat, we meet Twilly who is the definition of activist. We quickly learn that if he doesnt like something, he takes immediate action.And its not with anger that he takes action, but disappointment, if I was really pissed, I wouldve done it on a Monday morning, and I wouldve made blest sure my uncle was inside at the time (19). This is in response to his therapist asking if the reason he blew up a bank was due to the fact that he was angry his uncle made a impart to some rotten people (18). We arent really introduced to the proper sense of law as we were in The Monkey Wrench Gang, but such chimerical images of the characters in political positions make us see them as the bad guys and the person who blows up a bank as a hero.More grotesque images develop as we learn about Robert Clapley and his Barbie dolls and Palmer Stoat and his trophies. So even though we essential to hate the chief(prenominal) characters, we hate who Hiaasen wants us to hate more. With this manipulation technique and Hiaasens rapid tonal shifts between analog characters, we find ourselves not being able to put the novel down. He creates a sense of higher law that gives us a place to go and pretend were there with Twilly being a heroic criminal and activist. Hiaasen also does not overstep his boundaries with this sense of higher law as characters are able to resist destruction.In the scene where Twilly and Desie are driving behind a lady in a Lexus who threw her cigarette butt out the window, Twilly wants to put her car up in flames, but he lets off (219). Although we are already on Twillys side, the fact that he can resist gives him more respect as a criminal. Once again, in the readers eyes, what makes him a hero is how Hiaasen develops the blackball characterization of characters like Clapley, Gash and Stoat. In a very grotesque scene between Clapley and Stoat, Stoat explains, The central thing is, that nutty kid is finall y out of the picture.And, oh yeah, Desie and Boodle are OK, too. Not that I give a shit (360). Immediately after this is said, Clapley finds himself gazing past Stoat, at a dancer performing in a nearby boothif only she was taller (360). As illustrated, Clapley and Stoat are both sick people and we want them to be punished and destroyed. We are pulling for Twilly to torture them and win. The novel takes shifts towards a focus on the covetousness of politics where nature is just a victim and Twilly is standing up for it. In another beautiful example of poetic justice, the epilogue is used as a framing device to bring the novel full circle.In one example, the novel begins with Stoat hunting a rhino and ends with him being impaled by one (429). The ending of our other hated character, Robert Clapley, comes full circle as his most prized possessions, Katya and Tish, become, a trademark symbol this order to include but not expressly be limited to such oral and optic depictions as Goth Barbies, Undead Barbies, and Double-Jointed Vampire Barbies (445). This is a direct occurrence of what Clapley didnt want to fall and we find ourselves giggling about the fact.The sense of the novel as a political cartoon truly adds to our use of goods and services as readers and superb justification of higher law and love for heroic criminals. In conclusion, both Abbey and Hiaasen create a new definition of criminal through manipulating our morals in their development of characters and justifying it with the sense of a higher law. Adventuresome environmentalists deface and destroy many things, yet we find ourselves as readers cheering for them to do so and get away with it. Ethically we should not side with these rebellious characters, but we truly are completely, 100% invested.