Monday, September 30, 2019

Blood Bank

Blood bank Although there are any complicated instruments in the blood bank department, but it’s a very important and sensitive section of the medical laboratory as it deals with donors and acceptors of the blood, it transfer for leukemia and thalasemia patients, new born and cancer patients and so many cases blood bank save their lives. Tests that are carried in this department: 1- Some tests, which included donated free of diseases, serology tests 2- blood grouping 3- rhesus factor†Rh† 4- direct & indirect coombs test 5- cross matching 1-serology testsTo ensure that donated free of infectious diseases as HIV, Hbs, VDRL These tests are rabid tests using a card [pic] 2- blood grouping Red blood cells contain on their surface on Ag A,B, and the have their antibodies in the serum on the same red blood cells. That means, that every blood group can give a specific other group and receive also from a specific one in order to avoid agglutination and so blood clotting. [p ic] Method 1: On a slide put two drops of blood- -Add a drop of anti A on the first blood drop, and a drop af anti B on the second blood drop – mix and wait for 2 minutes – observe the agglutination if happened with anti A the blood group is A [pic] You can use a test tube instead of the slide, and then put the tubes in the centrifuge and watch the agglutination found 3- Rhesus factor â€Å"Rh† Is a complex antigen â€Å"D† found on the red blood cells and has its anti in the serum of the blood. 85 % are Rh + which has D in their blood Its very dangerous if persons, which are Rh negative received Rh positive it makes agglutinations, and may lead to death. Method : -As in the blood grouping -Put a drop of blood + a drop of anti D Mix together, observe the agglutination – -If found any agglutinations, its Rh positive. -direct & indirect coombs test This test is carried out to detect the presence of incomplete antibodies, which would react with double of complete antigen making a clot. And these are very serious and dangerous cases. A- direct coombs test Detect antibodies reactive with RBCs and conjoined Bhaotkon these objects is incomplete and not have the ability to cause coagulation alone and shows Taktherha only after the addition of serum Coombs. This test is very important in diagnosis many cases, the most popular is â€Å"Hemolytic anemia of new born†, lead poisoning, some drugs, inherited hemolytic anemia.Method: -Add drops of blood in a test tube and wash using saline 2-3 times( â€Å"wash† as the word means, add saline to the blood and through the filtrate 2-3 times making a bloody suspension) – add 2 drops to the washed Rbcs, and put the tube in the centifuge – examine the formation of any agglutination first with nacked eyes then using microscope. – if found it’s a positive coombs test B- indirect coombs test: to detect the presence of free antigens in the blood, not attached to red blood cells. Method: – prepare a sample of blood group O+ and wash with saline 2-3 times 2- put drops of patient serum in a test tube, add 2 drops of washed O+ blood 3- put in a water bath for 40-60 minutes 4- after 50 minutes add â€Å"bovine serum albumin† to the tube 5- wash again with saline 3-4 times 6- add 2 drops of coombs anti human globuline, and then put into centrifuge 7- observe the presence of agglutination 8- if found before add coombs reagent = presence of anti D 9- If found after add coombs reagent= presence of incomplete anti D 10- If not found at all= negative test. [pic] -cross matching The cross matching test is very important in case of blood transfusion from donors to acceptors as the blood group and Rh should be identical to each other. So sample of blood of donor and acceptor is added to each other and checking for any formation of clotting, if found that indicates that they are not suitable for each other At first the blood group and th e Rh type is detected before carring out the cross matching, and they should be identical Simply add drop of donor blood + drop of acceptor blood and mix well and watch for agglutinations formedIf any agglutination formed that’s means the donor and acceptor blood are not identical The figure below explain the procedure briefly. [pic] Blood bags colors: For keeping blood bags colors are as follows: Red is the color of blood is used to save the type (o) Yellow color is used to save the blood of type (a) Green color is used to save the blood of type (b) Blue color is used to save the blood of the type (ab) This poster, which shows color should clarify the patient's name and for keeping the blood bag and the type of preservative and temperature required to save the blood and the name of the hospital blood and date of preparation.Anticoagulants used in blood bags: Is non-clotting materials added to the blood bags Blood Bag These materials vary its chemical content, which in turn a ffect the period of keeping the blood. 1 – Material CPD: It knows its components citrate phosphate dextrose and that preserve blood for 21 days after mixing blood, under colder than 2-6 degrees Celsius. 2 – Article CPDA: They are the materials the previous addition of adenine, which in turn kept the blood for 29 days in the same previous methods. 3 – Article CPDA-I: This article reservation blood for 35 days ,save the whole blood.These three materials used amount of 63 cm ? full unit of blood is added about 400-450 cm ? of whole blood by withdrawing blood from the donor. Where that blood saves temperatures of 2-6 degrees Celsius private refrigerators to save the blood. 4 – SAG-M material or substance ADSOL: used to save the concentrated red blood cells for a period of 42 days degrees cooler than 2-6 degrees Celsius. This method using a 100 cm ? the sag-m or ADSOL be present unit separate from the whole blood units and connected pipe tight and sterile.As t he blood drawn from the donor and mixes textured CPD usual and after by the apartheid regime through centrifugal force refrigerated centrifugation separates blood plasma to the unit empty neighboring unit blood then keep red blood cells concentrated alone which are added directly 100 cm ? of the foregoing adsol / sag-m to keep red blood cells to centralize for a period of 42 days. 5 – Article Djileerool glycerol: Reservation concentrated red blood cells for a period of 15 years or more and under cooler from 65 to 200 degrees Celsius below zero.This modern way used to freeze red blood cells concentrated from rare species or negative and is dissolving blood frozen after that when usage and the need for washing cells red, textured saline-glucose solution to remove material Djileerool of blood and then later used these red blood cells to patients. The means of blood plasma and sludge near, it is frozen in freezers less degree cold out to about 30 to 35 degrees below zero and one year AD full, but platelets, they kept for five days in a continuous motion to prevent damage, and the degree of conservation of 20-22 degrees Celsius.Types of Blood Transfusion Blood Transfusion: Full blood transfusion whole blood: The simplest kinds of transport where blood is taken from the donor and kept in the fridge at a temperature close to almost 8 degrees. Which is used during times of emergency, But loses its anti-bleeding elements. Transfer plasma: As we know consists of blood â€Å"red blood cells + plasma† If red blood cells transport oxygen. The tasks of the plasma containing elements prevent blood clots. And thus will be useful for many patients and gives better results and faster as patients liver.As well as a pint of pure plasma is easier on the body of a mixed-liter of whole blood. Transfer platelets: It is relatively more expensive and needs modern major hospitals. Or be separated manually through lab technician but needs a sterile room at 100%, which may b e difficult to get it continuously. The mean platelet extract â€Å"only† from the donor and returned the rest of the blood â€Å"plasma + erythrocytes† donated to the same moment. It is suitable for patients who suffer from a shortage of blood platelets, which help heal wounds. Refrigerators Blood Bank: You will find two types of refrigerators: – refrigerators for keeping blood bags full whole blood: And often have gate transparent glass shelves. Each rack of a particular department or certain species. There is, for example, a special rack Balveselh A-or there is a special rack, Department of Orthopedic.. Each section has a share of the blood bags. There is a special rack emergency. Wharf special surplus â€Å"given any section†. Refrigerator temperature appears on a small digital screen. In addition, the average temperature of 8 degrees Celsius. 2 – refrigerators to save plasma bags: temperature of about 43 below zero ..Because plasma contain ele ments prevent icing and prevent bleeding and proteins need to lower temperatures to save Blood transfusion bags: Per bag hose blogger called â€Å"tube†, Recorded in the book Blood Bank. As an example: No. This bag is hose 123456a .. And on each paper bag writable. Adzun â€Å"name of the donor† and â€Å"the name of the patient† and â€Å"taking blood† and â€Å"blood†. Daily and periodically examine the contents of refrigerators of blood bags and review its date. In the event of termination validity blood bag is left out of order execution .. Blood bags execution: Be executed â€Å"get rid† of blood in two cases.Either analyzes showed that the donor patient in one of the viruses â€Å"hepatitis or AIDS or syphalis† Or â€Å"expiration blood†. Collect the bags to be culled in environmental bags â€Å"red†. And closes tightly car to take them medical waste to get rid of them safely through the burning in special containe rs .. Books of blood transfusion: All data is recorded books, Name of the donor, blood type and result of the analysis and the compatibility and tube. When asked for any blood bag section. The technician or doctor reviewed the book and the contents of the fridge and writes a receipt or revenue blood bag, such as banks completely

Dionysus with Pan

The chosen art piece, from Roman origin, is titled â€Å"Dionysus† and portrayed Dionysus, the god of wine, with his follower Pan. This artwork is a great example of Greek art’s influence in Roman artwork. The main elements of Greek’s naturalistic art, specifically of High Classical period, are rendered beautifully in this piece combined with distinctive elements from verism, unique to Roman art. So, the idealism of Greek art and the individualism of Roman art come together to create an art piece that is divine, mythical, and yet very human and therefore, relatable.This piece of art depicted the interaction between Dionysus and Pan in a form of sculpture. The sculpture was created from beautiful marble in A. D. 50 – 150. The work is three dimensional and still in excellent shape. There is almost no sign of physical or visible damage on sculpture which is rare because it has been created about two thousand years ago. This durability of the piece must be cre dited to the sculptor for having engineering intelligence to make the sculpture stay intact for so long.The artwork includes organic and fluid lines because each body feature of Dionysus and Pan is smooth, graceful, and very close to the natural form. The way Dionysus’ left leg is crossed over his right leg conveys that both were just standing and not moving. It is not telling a specific story; rather, it is just taking a moment out of the life of two people which are of a god and his follower in this case. The texture is smooth since it was created from marble. Dionysus’s characteristics of being the god of wine are represented in several elements in this work.The elements include the ritual staff with pinecone head in his right hand that he is known to carry, the wreath of grapes and wines enhancing his beautiful curls, and the wine cup on his left hand. Dionysus is resting his left hand on Pan’s right shoulder. The goat skin on Pan and Dionysus and the tree t runk that both are leaning on convey that they both reside in a forest or in out in nature. Pan, the follower, has the upper body of a human and lower body and the horns of a goat.This mythical creature is holding a stick, for hunting rabbits, in his right hand and looking up at Dionysus with great admiration. Pan’s left arm is wrapped around Dionysus’ back. Pan’s body is smaller, about two-thirds of Dionysus’ body, in comparison to Dionysus indicating Pan’s status as a follower perhaps. However, both are in perfect proportions. This work of art is a mix of naturalism and verism. The beautiful perfect skin, the appropriately proportional body and the beauty of young Dionysus are much idealized.The god of wine doesn’t have the body structure of an athlete; however, the body features and muscles are quite in proportion and yet humanized. Dionysus’ face is very humanlike because it displays a certain sense of kindness and relaxedness. Th ere is no sign of stress, discomfort, or detachedness on his face. Dionysus has his left leg crossed over his right leg and he is leaning on Pan on his left. Dionysus’ unique pose is a varied version of contrapposto pose which was so common in the High Classical sculptures. This pose means that the weight of the body is supported by one leg, right leg in this case.This pose illustrates relaxed state of mind and makes the audience feel that Dionysus is at ease. He also has his left hand resting on Pan while holding the wine cup. This shows that Dionysus is trusted by Pan and Pan is also trusted by him because Pan has his right arm around Dionysus’ waist. This close distance mainly exemplifies love, faith and intimacy of a relationship. The naturalism and intimacy depicted in this art is similar to the playfulness and lightheartedness defined in Late Classical Period and specifically in the sculpture â€Å"Hermes and the Infant Dionysus†.Dionysus in â€Å"Dionysu s† is slender, softer, and graceful similar to Hermes in â€Å"Hermes and the Infant Dionysus†. This is a slight contrast to the canon of proportions in High Classical. The use of emotion makes the Gods look real and humanlike which is also a contrast to the idealized works of High Classical Greek works. Another similarity between the two sculptures is how Hermes and Dionysus are leaning on the tree trunk for support and representing the forest as background.Overall, the work is more realistic than naturalistic which is conveyed by the verism represented in the awestruck like expression of Pan, the kindness and calmness reflecting on Dionysus and their intimacy with each other. By including Pan in this work, the sculptor makes the audience view Dionysus in awe from the eyes of Pan. It makes the audience think that Dionysus is the type of God who is kind, calm, composed, humane, and not strict or unforgiving. Therefore, the most significant part of this artwork is the ge nuine yet stimulating interaction between Dionysus and Pan that makes this art so real and relevant. ?

Saturday, September 28, 2019

A project on night blindness Essay

Introduction: Night blindness also known as Nyctalopia is not a diagnosis, but rather a symptom of an underlying disorder. People with night blindness (also called impaired dark adaptation) see poorly in the darkness but see normally when adequate amounts of light are present. The condition does not actually involve true blindness, even at night. Recovery is fairly rapid when intake is reduced. Night Blindness is commoner than one can expect it to be. Causes: There are many causes of Night Blindness. Night blindness can be linked to a variety of conditions caused by impaired liver function, which in turn reduces vitamin A in the body. Vitamin A deficiency is a common cause for night blindness. Some people are just born with it. Many people who are alcoholics or drink a lot may also get Night Blindness because drinking can damage your liver, which makes it easier to pick up an infection of any kind. Symptoms: Symptoms include difficulty seeing when driving in the evening or at night, poor vision in reduced light. You may have a feeling that your eyes take longer to â€Å"adjust† to seeing in the dark. Initially there is slight difficulty in seeing in dim light later this progresses. The field of vision becomes narrow then later limitations in day vision. If no medication is taken blindness can occur. Toxic symptoms can occur with a large intake of Vitamin A. This is called Hypervitaminosis A, which leads to loss of appetite, a dry, itchy skin often with peeling, intense headaches and an enlarger liver. Typical Sufferers: Night Blindness starts at an early age, around 15 years and progresses into adulthood. Typical sufferers of Night Blindness are the elderly, teenagers and alcoholics. Many younger kids maybe born with night blindness it may  also be an indicator of Retinitis Pigmentosa. Also Night Blindness can also occur if there is a poor intake of Vitamin A. Some people can be born with Night Blindness because it is a genetic disease and runs in families. Treatment: Night Blindness can be treated with therapeutic dosages of the vitamin A. Some types of damage to the retina, such as Retinitis Pigmentosa, are usually irreversible. Many treatments like Vitamin A tablets are being given, but their definite effect has not been documented. Taking supplements of Vitamin A in eye drops is also used to treat Night Blindness. Also just eating healthy and eating more Vitamin A products can improve your eyesight at night, but it is not a permanent cure for Night Blindness. Prevention: Preventions of Night blindness can be a larger intake of Vitamin A. Eating leafy green vegetables such as spinach that is rich in Vitamin A. It contains more vitamin A than most other green vegetables. This vitamin promotes growth and health, specially the health of the eyes. Lack of this vitamin may lead to night blindness. Spinach is thus an effective food remedy for the prevention and treatment of night blindness. Also eating animal livers, milk, and yellow vegetables can improve the intake of vitamin A in your body. These vegetables, which contain carotene, that is a chemically related substance that is converted to vitamin A in the body. Conclusion: If you think you might have Night Blindness and are seeing some of the symptoms you should start eating more Vitamin A. Having too much vitamin A can be bad for your body, because Vitamin A is one of the few vitamins in which excess produces definite and severe effects. Recovery is fairly rapid when intake is reduced. There are many varieties of Night Blindness, some begin earlier and progress faster. Night Blindness is serious and is commoner than one can expect it to be! Bibliography Gottlieb, William. The Doctors book of home remedies. Prevention Magazine Health Books. 2000. Ch. 99 Medical Encyclopedia. 20 Feb. 2003 Night Blindness. 20 Feb. 2003 Night Blindness Gene. 16 Feb. 2003 Upgren, A.R. Night Blindness: Light pollution, the environment, and our experience of nature. The Amicus Journal Winter. 1996. Pp. 22-25 Vitamins. 16 Feb. 2003

Friday, September 27, 2019

History Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 91

History - Essay Example They tried to copy this style of ruling, which led to rise of absolute states so that they can assert their powers (Kidner, Bucur, Mathisen, McKee, and Theodore, 145). One of the characteristics is that the leader is the head of state and responsible for making most decisions in the state, for instance in the French absolute monarchy. King Louis XIV became a king at 23 years and was responsible for all decision made in his land. The second characteristic is that the success and power of the absolutist depended on how well they resolved their financial crisis. The third characteristic is that they were not totalitarian. This means that they neither seize nor seek to direct deceits of a culture of the state. They also had their standing armies that were referred to as the secret police (Kidner, Bucur, Mathisen, McKee and Theodore, 200). The agricultural states in the western maritime were not influenced by the absolutist states. England and Holland were the first two states that were not willing to apply this system. This was because they had already outgrown this system of leadership. They only implied some of the practice sin their internal political environment. The Dutch were also not interested in the absolutist system. The reasons for the decline of this system of the states were both intellectual and political. One of the reasons was that England was set for a radical change in its administration. It was struggling to have a modern state. England was setting out to have a parliament. These desires were driven by the religious concerns of list people. These states also saw many disadvantages in having this type of leadership. One of the reasons was that they would contact more trade and have fewer invasions as compared to the absolutist. They were slowly preparing for war and not trade. This meant that the st ates that rejected this move would not require a large army and most people

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Marketing- Buisness Memo Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Marketing- Buisness Memo - Essay Example First, I plan to look at the internal operation of Polo. This will mean looking at the company’s current performance both qualitatively and quantitatively. It will also be important to look at the mission and vision of the business organization together with the goals and objectives that it wants to achieve in the short-run and the long-run. After identifying the goals, the marketing strategy employed by Polo will be examined. The analysis will first focus on the target market of the company. The profile of the target market will be created and examined. This will be followed by in-depth examination of how it uses the four Ps (product, promotion, price, and place). In this section, I also plan to tackle if the four Ps complement each other and if it is deemed appropriate with the target market. Customers need and preferences will also be identified. Recognizing that the primary driver of the strategies and tactics of a business organization are the trends and developments in the business environment, the analysis will also devote a section on how the current marketing environment is changing. First, the general environment will be surveyed through the use of the PESTLE analysis which takes into account the political, economic, social, technological, environmental, and legal factors which can affect Polo in the short run and long run. The different stakeholders in the environment will also be examined by employing the Porter’s Five Forces Model. I plan to examine the barriers to entry in the industry, the level of competition, the buyer of customer, the leverage of supplier, and the threat of other substitutes. In forming recommendations for Polo, it is deemed very important to look at what other players in the industry are doing. This will enable the company to know its current position, its major rivals, as well as its competitive advantages and disadvantages relative to them. The analysis will also look at the


WORLD WAR II WAS A WAR OF UNPRECEDENT DEATH AND DESTRUCTION, MUCH OF IT FOCUSED ON CIVILIANS, WHY - Essay Example The major control of Germany was in the hand of Adolf Hitler. He was the leader of Nazi party. He conquered the lands of Germany and defeated Poland. This proved to break out war against Germany and slowly nearly whole world indulged into it. In world war 2 more than 63 million people of allied and axis powers were died. This death figure included 24 million soldiers and 38 million civilians in which 90% civilians were from allied nations. Allied nations defeated the axis powers and this was the end of war. The major destruction in this war caused to Allied nation people. Death figure of civilians are given which shows the deadliness of world war 2.Around 11.7 million civilian died in Soviet Union, 7 million in China, 5.2 million in Poland, 2 million in Germany and 0.6 million in Japan. 5 million European Jews died due to genocide. In world war two many new weapons like atomic bombs, missiles, fighter planes, biochemical bombs were invented which caused to mass destruction and genetic disorders.

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Aspects of Visual Images Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Aspects of Visual Images - Essay Example As the discussion declares representational art is not only fascinating but also thrilling given the fact that it started back in history. Besides, representational artwork presents the biggest amount of artwork done over the years. Notably, representational art majorly deals with ideas, styles, reality and impression hence distinguishes actual subjects from reality. The ease with which people identify representational artworks makes them like the aspect. Some of the representational artwork determined from the provided pieces of artwork includes Les Demoiselles d’Avignon by Pablo Picasso, and the rocky Mountains by Albert Bierstadt.This study stresses that  abstract artwork concentrates more on geometry and shapes hence it is not easy to recognize objects depicted by the artwork. Artists who embrace abstract artwork argue that the aesthetic value of a painting is more attracting than representational characteristics. They support their arguments by stating that use of geome try for instance figures, color, shapes, and circles make a piece of work more attractive. Abstraction gained momentum in the 19th century when artists started to view artwork in a more intellectual manner.  Abstraction artists see artwork as a profession just like any other hence, the application of aesthetics enhances quality work. However, due to many similarities between abstract and non-objectivity many people usually fail to distinguish the two.

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Analytical Book Review of Time Quake by Kurt Vonnegut Essay

Analytical Book Review of Time Quake by Kurt Vonnegut - Essay Example Kilgore Trout describes the nature of the Timequake as "a cosmic charley horse in the sinews of Destiny" (Vonnegut 17) in his unfinished memoir entitled My Ten Years on Automatic Pilot. This cosmic event occurred in the year 2001 when "a sudden glitch in the space-time continuum, made everybody and everything do exactly what they'd done during a past decade . . . a second time" (Vonnegut 1). Trout story reveals the ineptitudes of human awareness. Kilgore becomes a hero through his use of free will. The timequake is a device to unveil the cultural condition of America, in the hope that it might shock readers into an awareness of their careless disregard of human potential and indifference to the ideals of human dignity and unanimity in our society. Vonnegut tells readers: In real life, as during a rerun following a timequake, people don't change, don't learn anything from their mistakes, and don't apologize. In a short story they have to do at least two out of three of those things, or you might as well throw it away in the lidless wire trash receptacle chained and padlocked to the fire hydrant in front of the American Academy of Arts and Letters" (Vonnegut 43). To-do so, Vonnegut portrays... The academy's executive secretary is Monica Pepper. Those stories are read with delighted awe by her husband, Zoltan, a man she had paralyzed from the waist down in an accident, and who once plagiarized a Kilgore Trout story when he was a boy. Vonnegut depicts that after "automatic pilot" crash their cars and airplanes, or fall down at the foot of escalators, the only person who seems able to take control of himself again is none other than Kilgore. To mobilize people to put their free will to use and restore order, he shouts out a phrase: "You were sick, but now you're well again, and there's work to do" (Vonnegut 61). He is killed the instant the timequake is over by a berserk fire truck that smashes his wheelchair into the steel door of the academy headquarters. But with that fortress now blasted open, Kilgore uses the building as a morgue and sets up a triage hospital in the homeless shelter next door, after organizing the bums into rescue teams. Trout is the one who goes into th e street to get people back on their feet and functioning with the message. It seems appropriate that this man, whose imagination finds anything possible, should be the one to accept the situation with some alacrity and carry on. His message, "You were sick, but now you're well again, and there's work to do," captures something fundamental in the nature of Trout himself. In general, the book negatively and cynically portrays modern society, human values, norms and traditions. Vonnegut uses acute critic to unveil false morals and drawbacks of the modern world order. Cruel jokes can be seen as a characteristic of humor. The loneliness, emptiness, and alienation

Monday, September 23, 2019

Construction law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Construction law - Essay Example Therefore, Anglo Synergy Solution is committed at conscripting conceptualize ideal procurement process that will be incomparable and acceptable to all. In the Mzansi Rail Shuttle project, the major stakeholders are Sandline Ventures with which has committed an investment of USD 120 billion, South African government and AUM Ventures. Sandline Ventures, the South African government and AUM Ventures expect a return on their investments. Hence, they must obtain the best procurement deal that will guarantee them high returns. Anglo Synergy Solution recommends that the Mzansi Rail Shuttle project should be procured by first ensuring that the authentic and fair competitions exist in responded to Prior Information Notice (PIN). Section 26(4A) of the railway Act, 1993, stipulate that advertisement should be made in both in the country and in the international journal, trade newspapers and other publication as this will eliminate political biases hence uplifting competency to handle the project (Crocker et al., 2010). It is very important to open-up communal procurement market as this will promote: Equal treatment- contracting authority must handle both potential and authentic tenderers fairly without prejudice. Contracting authority when stipulating requirement must avoid brand names which would eliminate particular providers, services and products. Transparency- advertising Prior Information Notice is central in establishing and encouraging transparency (LÃ ¦dre et al., 2006). It creates awareness of the condition for participation, selection criteria and the reason why some individuals were companies were not selected. Anglo Synergy Solution recommends AUM and Sandaline companies sponsoring the project to adjust the time restriction as time is an essential factor. Railway construction law does not specify duration for the accomplishment of the work by the contractors. The provision of services by contract is guided by

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Environmental Pollution Essay Example for Free

Environmental Pollution Essay Los Angeles, California have been experiencing a growing population within our city. The growing population in this city has caused an increased pressure on the infrastructure and natural resources that are beginning to affect our environment. The expansion of the city has cut deeper into the rural areas that are causing problems to the environment, such as a loss in our wetlands, water pollution, biological habitats, and air pollution. The cause of the growing population has led to a high density of factories, automobiles, and commercial enterprises in Los Angeles. The population growth is beginning to create many environmental problems that are giving Los Angeles economic, and environmental consequences. Theresa Carter, an associate-level environmental scientist, has suggested four measurements of the city council for addressing the pollution management. She has suggested to Encouraging alternative transportation, walking, and bicycle use, Promoting fuel-efficient cars, Improving roads, and Encouraging carpooling. The encouragement of alternative transportation is great on the earth environment and the health of human beings. The improvement of better roads can also improve the transportation of people, reduce cars accidents, and can allow people to compost what was used. Compost helps improve soil, so it holds more water and plants grow better. Carpooling is a very effective climate change, because it allows one car to be used to carry different people to work and other places. For instance, eight people wanted to drive their car from Los Angeles to Apple valley. Los Angeles is an hour and a half drive away. Instead of using eight different cars and spending money on  eight different fossil fuels to fuel their cars, one person can use a van to carry all the co-worker to one location saving, hundreds of dollars and used of savable fossil fuels. When people use walking, bicycling, and carpooling at least twice a week it can cut the greenhouse gas emission at 1,600 pound per year. The promotion of fuel efficient vehicles allows the waste of fuel not to be used and helps protect the future cost of fossil fuels. When humans trade a car for a bicycle, it do not only improve their and the ecosystem health, It allows humans to fight obesity and rely on other ways to get around. Some persons may argue that fuel efficient cars are a great expense, but it can also be a significant improvement to get their health in order. It can do this by removing pollution from the air and gathering into their lungs. Bicycling is exercise, and many people have become obese by sitting around and driving, while not doing nothing to benefit their health. Pedestrian crashes are more than twice as likely to occur in areas without sidewalks; streets with sidewalks on both sides have the fewest crashes. Streets without safe places to walk, cross, catch a bus, or bicycle put people at risk. Over 5,000 pedestrians and bicyclists died on U.S. roads in 2008, and more than 120,000 were injured (Reynolds, C, p. 22, 2009). Improvements of new roads and fuel efficient cars can be a massive expense, but the is an excellent conservation of people lives, and deter of greenhouse gases being released. Better decision making on environmental issues, allow people to make a better decision to live life on earth for a longer existence. The way the Earth works is to create and recreate, not for human to produce and destroys nature natural habitat. The following quote â€Å"Decision-making about environmental issues necessitates the maintenance of a good balance between the effectiveness of measures and the public reaction towards them.† In Theresa opinion mean that if human makes a valid decision on the thing that he or she find necessary, meaning something they can not live without Only then will they know how to keep the earth and its environment clean, and the general will began to follow. When the public sees the response of them destroying the environment personally, they can take the appropriate measure it take to have others combined with the contribute to restoring and  maintain a clean environment. Los Angeles economic and environmental hazard can become improved by encouraging alternative transportation, walking, and bicycle use, promoting fuel-efficient cars, improving roads and encouraging carpooling. Many hazards come from the emission of fossil fuels from the engines of cars, by implementing the use of people not using their cars or making fuel efficient vehicles, it helps improve the inconvenience use of vehicles. When the growth of population becomes larger, more people require unnecessary materialistic items, like cars, technology, and material that cut into the field and push down trees from growing. Animals start to get pushed out their habitats, and the earth begin to become small on their environmental structure. If Los Angeles complete or clean up their street, it may cost a profit, but it is a reduction in car accidents, better bicycling paths for bicyclist, and a cleaner environment so humans can respect and take care. Reference: Analysis shows promoting fuel efficient cars will keep fuel costs from draining illinois economy. (2011). Entertainment Close Up, Retrieved September 14, 2014, from Botkin, D.B. and Keller,E.A. 2010. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet 7th Edition. Hoboken: John Wiley Sons. Reynolds, C., et al. (2009). â€Å"The Impact of Transportation Infrastructure on Bicycling Injuries and Crashes: A Review

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Colonization and domestic violence: Strategies

Colonization and domestic violence: Strategies The correlation between colonization and domestic violence is undeniable given the plethora of scholarly and historical data. The main misconception that exists in this area relates to the belief that the violent aspects of colonization and its associated abuse lay directly at the feet of Westerners or other outside cultures and influences. Domestic violence, in its many forms, is forced upon men, women and children from many sources including people in their own society. In addition to the definitions and correlations of colonization and domestic violence, this paper also discusses the colonization, social structure and abuse of Aboriginal Peoples including the Maori tribe of New Zealand, Native Americans, and the First Nation communities of Canada as well as the diseases thrust upon the colonists by the colonizers. Also examined are the relationships between modern abuse related to colonised cultures and its possible prevention. Domestic Violence The United States Justice Department’s Office on Violence Against Women provides a definition of the various types of domestic violence: We define domestic violence as a pattern of abusive behavior in any relationship that is used by one partner to gain or maintain power and control over another intimate partner. Domestic violence can be physical, sexual, emotional, economic, or psychological actions or threats of actions that influence another person. This includes any behaviors that intimidate, manipulate, humiliate, isolate, frighten, terrorize, coerce, threaten, blame, hurt, injure, or wound someone. (2014) The types of domestic abuse include physical, sexual, emotional, economic and psychological abuse. Domestic violence is not limited to any particular race, religion, gender, age, educational or socio-economic factors. For the purpose of this paper, domestic violence is categorized as violent behavior that has been inflicted on one culture by another since colonization took place. Oftentimes the victims are the colonists who are subjected to abuse in its various forms by the colonizers but eventually that abuse transfers into abuse between members of the oppressed culture. The reasons for the abuse may disappear but the behavior can last and even accelerate through future generations. Colonization The term colonization comes from the Latin for â€Å"to inhabit†. Colonisation most often refers to an outside group moving into a previously inhabited area. Ever since man learned to travel, he has desired to conquer new lands either by developing a profitable relationship with the indigenous peoples or, more commonly, by taking over the land and other resources through a threat of force or through direct violence. Colonisation can be beneficial if it is done with respect and cooperation of the inhabitants. Some regions, especially underdeveloped regions, may benefit significantly from colonization by an outside culture. These regions may experience in an increase in world knowledge, medical care, economic growth and more. There are instances however, that show the dark side of colonization and the domestic violence with which it has often been associated. History is filled with tales of forceful colonization despite the language used to describe it – exploration, emin ent domain, settlements. More often than not when a territory is colonised without the express permission of the colonists, violence ensues. The violence may come in the form of a direct attack or through cultural oppression. The colonists may be imprisoned, raped or beaten into submission. This form of abuse lasts much longer than the life span of the abuser and abused. It is carried into future generations through culture, belief systems and trauma, often causing particular cultures to be more prone to the violence committed against their ancestors or, worse, become the abusers. Correlation between Colonisation and Domestic Violence People intent on colonizing new lands or infiltrating existing cultures typically held the strict belief that their religion, politics, education and culture were far superior to that of the indigenous people therefore it was common practice for the new settlers to impart, often forcibly, their culture and belief systems on the indigenous peoples. As a result of this effort, the indigenous peoples were required to take on the characteristics and culture of the invaders, usually due to the threat of violence. Because indigenous people were often less educated than the invading population, they were seen – and treated – as an inferior society. This is not to say that the indigenous cultures were perfect before they were infiltrated by the colonizers. Each culture has its own unique set of beliefs and circumstances. The difference may be that there is limited, if any, knowledge or documentation on the culture of these peoples before they were colonised. Colonization and Patriarchy Patriarchy, the cultural practice of revering the male gender as the head of society, including the family structure, can be directly linked to colonization and the mistreatment of the female gender. Historically speaking, cultures with a patriarchal view held little regard for the female gender which often permitted substandard treatment of females. This treatment often led to various forms of domestic violence. A patriarchal belief system is common even in the modern world although great strides have been made to protect women and children from violent males often taught to be dominant by colonizing cultures. While the majority of the invading people held a patriarchal view, that is not without exception. Many indigenous cultures are matriarchal in nature, particularly the Native American and First Nation communities of Canada. The shift in leadership from matriarchal to patriarchal often caused women to be viewed as inferior as men were taught not to respect women as they once had. As a result, women in many cultures were viewed as little more than property allowing the male population to treat the women in any way they saw fit, including a cycle of domestic violence that would remain in place for generations. According to Kanuha (2002), there are several strategies for claiming superiority over another gender or culture. The first is to convince the colonists that their ways are superior. The second strategy is to create a delineation between the colonizers and the indigenous peoples through segregation including the separation of men and women. The third strategy of colonization is to use domestic violence to control the colonists. This may include any and all forms of physical, emotional, spiritual and psychological abuse. The fourth strategy is to take control of the colonists’ economic resources including natural resources. The fifth strategy is controlling the culture and limiting outside resources of knowledge and information. In some cultures they are permitted to see only media images of women that were created by men; images that often objectified women. Another form of control is to prohibit the use of native language and education as well as to deny the colonists the opportunity to decide or vote on their own futures. While patriarchy is undeniably tied to colonization, it must be mentioned that men also suffered from these same issues. While men may have been seen as dominant, the colonists were second to the colonizers and therefore often suffered from the same abuses as women. Colonisation and Disease One form of domestic violence is to deny one appropriate health care. During the colonization of many regions of the world, indigenous peoples were exposed to and infected to new diseases brought by the colonists yet were denied adequate care. In fact, many of the colonizers were often quarantined from the recently exposed natives to protect them from diseases they brought to the region. The belief was that the natives, unable to withstand any number of exotic pathogens, were biologically inferior. It was the development of world trade routes as well as the desire to conquer new lands that encouraged Europeans to cross borders into previously unexplored territories. As a result, they infected entire cultures with disease, namely tuberculosis and small pox, two diseases responsible for killing the majority of Americans and Europeans in the 18th and 19th centuries. Additionally, the colonizers tended to bring with them newly domesticated animals which added another level of potential disease to the natives. As the mortality rate of the colonists rose, the colonizers were able to increase their presence and domination over the remaining people and their lands. Colonisation of the Maori, Native Americans and the First Communities of Canada The Aboriginal tribes of the South Pacific, particularly the Maori, have a long and violent history of being colonised by Western Europeans. The Maori were once the colonisers of New Zealand, taking over the island through force and causing the genocide of the island’s indigenous peoples. The Maori began to trade with Europe in the 1700s, bartering fish and land for beads, cloth and other items. When potential invaders attempted to invade New Zealand, the Maori embraced violence and beheaded the infiltrators. They often participated in cannibalism rituals which led to a reputation of the Maori as being brutal savages. The shift toward colonisation began when missionaries arrived in New Zealand with the hope of converting the Maori to Christianity. The missionaries traded goods for land and built New Zealand’s first church. The Maori began to trade in muskets which created an arms race between New Zealand and its neighbors. Violence escalated. Although the Maori and the missionaries tended to remain separate, many Maori began to convert to Christianity. Relationships between Britain and the Maori strengthened. Britain wanted the Maori to pledge its allegiance to the throne in exchange for a guarantee that no one would attempt to rob the Maori of their lands. While many Maori refused to link themselves to the Queen, 46 chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, hoping to end the violence. While the Maori as a whole did not willingly shift to British rule, the region began to thrive from the relationship. Eventually, the British established a new capital in Aukland and the country continued to thrive. The history of the Native American tribes is well documented in most school texts. Christopher Columbus believed he had discovered a shorter route to China when he landed in the Bahamas. Columbus, eager to prove that he was a superior explorer sought only three things in his travels – to educate people about God, to gain glory for his explorations, and to gain fame and fortune from the gold, spices and other resources the trip would provide. Due to these factors, Columbus’ arrival in the Bahamas was ill fated for its people. Columbus and his crew pillaged the land and were, in essence, responsible for the deaths of nearly 60,000 inhabitants of the islands over a period of the next 30 years. Upon arriving in America, Columbus discovered that there were people living on this new land. This contact encouraged other people to travel to the New World. The infiltration of Europeans was not welcome by many of the 160 native tribes. While some tribes were friendly with each other and with the Europeans, many were not. Wars ensued. A large percentage of Native Americans were wiped out by the arrival of small pox, diminishing its population by as much as 70%. As the colonisation of the Americas continued, the Europeans began to outnumber the â€Å"savages†, forcing them into more remote areas of the country. Violence continued to escalate between the Europeans and Native Americans. Although it was the Europeans that began the barbaric practice of scalping, the act was solely attributed to the Native Americans who often retaliated in kind. The reputation of the Native Americans as uncivilized savages grew and along with it, any respect for their culture all but vanished. The legacy of the First Nation of communities mirrors that of the Native Americans and, in fact, they are in some way of the same family as their lands were stolen in the name of capitalism and racism. Throughout 100 years of violence between the Europeans and native cultures, the natives continued to be pushed back until eventually the majority of tribes were relegated to reservations. The segregation and loss of their culture created a wider gap between the cultures. Missionaries continued to attempt to colonise the natives by preaching and introducing modern ways into their culture. Domestic violence between factions continued as women were abused, men were beaten and killed. Women and children were also sold into the slave trade as sexual objects. Prevention of Domestic Violence in Colonised Territories It has been stated that the abuse and objectification of indigenous peoples carries with it a dark stain that has permeated generations. In addition to carrying that sense of shame and continued chain of abuse, each individual in the culture also carries with him a sense of being inferior. This sense of inferiority and the legacy of abuse are two of the reasons that indigenous peoples tend to have a higher rate of abuse as well as suicide. The prevention of domestic violence in colonised territories, despite the location, begins with education. In modern society it is known that abuse in any form is morally and ethically wrong as well as being illegal. Still, incidents of abuse occur every day and perpetrators are often allowed to wander free while the abused suffer. Some domestic violence treatment programmes may give special consideration to the history of trauma suffered by a particular culture, particularly those that have been colonised and show a marked increase of substance abuse or number of psychological issues. One such programme, popular in the United States is the Duluth Model in which the abuser is treated based on his history of trauma, beliefs in victimization and power over the abused as well as the shame factor. The programme has been used in the education and court systems to decrease the percentage of abuse, particularly by men. Smith (2006) states: Researchers are beginning to confirm what common sense dictates: that violence between individuals, while influenced by social and cultural variables, is more parsimoniously explained by an examination of individual characteristics, contexts, and functions of behavior. Not surprisingly, empirical research is beginning to identify shame, individual stressors such as substance abuse and trauma history, and personality characteristics as main contributors to violent behavior in intimate relationships. Smith also intimates that while there are many programmes and models that claim to have the best recipe for preventing abuse, it is not clear if one has any superior efficacy. Smith asserts that domestic violence activists and agencies will see the most success when treating the individual ascribed to the abuse. Conclusion The correlation between colonisation and domestic violence has been proven through myriad scholarly articles, texts and studies. Research has shown that the oppression of the colonists by colonisers creates deep inner turmoil that must be expressed. Since the anger, indignation and shame usually cannot be expressed directly at the abuser, the victim may turn those feelings inward which may result in depression, substance abuse, and even suicide. However, some victims will take out those feelings on others that may be weaker than they. In this case, it is often women and children that may suffer from physical, emotional, psychological, financial and verbal abuse. While many social programmes exist to combat domestic violence, they are often not designed to address the underlying trauma of the victim or the abuser. When one culture has been oppressed by another, a sense of inferiority is instilled. The oppressor intends to take what it wants from the oppressed whether it is land, money or even its own women and children. The oppressor often uses whatever means necessary to achieve his goals and will subject the oppressed to various types of violence and abuse. The oppressor may begin to believe that the violence is justified and that belief, that victim or abusive mentality may remain and perhaps even escalate throughout future generations. As women are objectified due to their cultures and perhaps beaten or raped, they tend to believe that the behavior is â€Å"normal† or perhaps even earned. Combatting those emotions and putting an end to domestic violence among the colonised cultures goes much deeper than the formulation of any law or social programme, no matter how valid. The issue must be addressed at the deepest level – the level of one’s belief system. While many pro grammes may treat only the victim or the abuser, it is imperative that both sides of the conflict be dissected and examined. The history of one’s culture can shed light on personal behavior even if the history seems far removed. Learning one’s history as well as becoming educated on healthy forms of communication and interaction are the only ways in which domestic violence can be effectively addressed. Only then is it possible to perhaps not eradicate but at least lessen the occurrences of domestic violence in these and other cultures.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Genetic Influences on Salmonella Formation

Genetic Influences on Salmonella Formation IHF Gene Influences Salmonella Enteritidis Biofilm Formation Integration Host Factor (IHF) is important for biofilm formation by Salmonella enterica Enteritidis Bruna Leite, Catierine Hirsch Werle, Camila Pinheiro do Carmo, Diego Borin Nbrega, Guilherme Paier Milanez, Cristina E. Alvarez-Martinez, Marcelo Brocchi Abstract Salmonella enterica Enteritidis forms biofilms and survives in agricultural environments where it infects poultry and eggs. Once established, biofilms are difficult to eradicate, due to their high resistance compared to planktonic cells, causing serious problems in industry and public health. In this study, we evaluated biofilm formation in wild-type strains of S. enterica Enteritidis and in ihf mutants employing different microbiology techniques. Our data indicate that ihf mutants display impaired biofilm formation, with a reduced of matrix formation and a decrease in CFU and metabolic activity. Phenotypic analysis indicated a deficiency in curli fimbriae expression and in cellulose production and pellicle formation. These results show that IHF has a regulatory role in biofilm formation in S. enterica Enteritidis. Keywords: Biofilm, Salmonella enterica Enteritidis, Polysaccharide matrix, Curli fimbriae, Cellulose, Integration Host Factor. Introduction A biofilm is defined as a bacterial colony adherent to a solid surface, which secretes a protective exopolysaccharide matrix. Every natural wet surface is a potential substrate for microbial biofilms. These sessile multicellular microbial consortia are embedded within self-produced extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). In food handling facilities, biofilms can be particularly problematic The ability to form biofilms is also an important factor in the virulence of S. Enterica. S. enterica subspecies I serovar Enteritidis is a leading cause of salmonellosis worldwide, and has emerged as one of the most important foodborne pathogens for humans. It is mainly associated with consumption of contaminated meat and eggs of poultry. A number of studies have demonstrated that S. enterica is capable of forming biofilms on a wide variety of contact surfaces, and the formation of biofilms may improve the ability of these organisms to resist stresses such as desiccation, extreme temperatures, antibiotics, and antiseptics. Biofilm formation allows S. enterica to survive for long periods in a poultry farm environment and to contaminate poultry meat and eggs, which remain the leading vehicles of salmonellosis outbreaks Many factors are involved in biofilm development. Curli fimbriae and cellulose are the major components of biofilm formed by S. enterica, whereas capsular polysaccharide, other polysaccharide-rich compounds such as lipopolyssaccharide (LPS), and a large secreted protein, BapA, also contribute to biofilm formation. Several regulatory genes involved in biofilm formation have been identified The expression of curli fimbriae and cellulose can be assayed phenotypically by growing enteric bacteria on Congo red indicator plates Bacteria may live in planktonic form in liquid media or as biofilms on biotic or abiotic surfaces. They need to adjust their genetic programs in order to switch from one lifestyle to another. The production of bacterial products and behaviours associated with environmental adaptation must be tightly coordinated to optimize the energy consumption. In bacteria, gene expression regulation is exerted primarily at the level of transcription initiation using a large array of transcription factors whose concentrations and activities change depending on specific environmental or metabolic signals. Topological changes in DNA also influence promoter recognition, open complex formation, and gene expression Nucleoid-associated proteins (NAPs) are global regulators of gene expression in bacteria. They alter the topology of DNA by bending, bridging, or wrapping it, leading to DNA transactions and multiple cellular effects that culminate in the modulation of gene expression. Integration-host factor (IHF) is a dimeric NAP that binds DNA in a sequence-specific manner and introduces curvatures of up to 180 °, which influence many aspects of bacterial physiology, including global gene expression, DNA topology, site-specific recombination, and DNA replication. In E. coli and S. enterica Typhimurium, the two IHF subunits-IHFÃŽ ± and IHFÃŽ ²-can assemble as hetero- or homo-dimers. There is also evidence indicating that the different dimeric forms of IHF regulate different but overlapping sets of genes Based on the global regulatory role of IHF, we hypothesized that this NAP can influence or directly regulate genes involved in biofilm formation in S. enterica Enteritidis. This hypothesis is supported by previous observations demonstrating that IHF activates curli production in S. enterica Typhimurium. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the role of IHF genes in the initial stages of biofilm formation in S. Enteritidis. To this end, we performed phenotypic studies using isogenic deletion mutants of individual ihf genes (ihfA or ihfB) and a double mutant strain with deletions in both IHF subunits (ihfAB double mutant). Materials and methods Bacterial strains In this study, the S. enterica Enteritidis wild-type strain PT4SEn (IOC4647) provided a by the Fundaà §Ãƒ £o Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) was used. The draft genome of this strain was recently published (Milanez et al. 2016). It was found to be pathogenic in a mouse model assay (Carmo et al., unpublished results). The mutants of S. Enteritidis PT4SEn were previously constructed (Carmo et al., unpublished results) by deletion of ihf genes using the lambda Red system by transduction with P22HT phages. Mutant strains were designated as S. enterica Enteritidis PT4SEn ΔihfA, PT4SEn ΔihfB, and PT4SEn ΔihfAB. Bacterial growth conditions and storage Bacteria were cultivated in Luria-Bertani broth (LB) and on Luria-Bertani agar (LBA) plates prepared according to the method of Sambrook and Russell. All strains were stored at -80 °C in 30% glycerol All strains were inoculated from fresh LBA plates into 15 mL LB and grown for 18  ± 2 h at 37 °C in an orbital shaker at 140 rpm. Cells were harvested by centrifugation (for 5 min at 9,500 g and 4 °C) and resuspended in NaCl (0.9%) adjusted to 0.5 McFarland scale equivalent to 1.5 108 cells/mL prior to use in subsequent assays. Complementation of S. enterica Enteritidis ΔihfA and ΔihfB mutants Sequences corresponding to the ihfA and ihfB genes and their regulatory regions were obtained by PCR from the PT4SEn genome using the primers listed in Table 1. The DNA fragments were cloned in the pACYC184 vector (New England Biolabs, USA) between the NcoI and EcoRI restriction sites (restriction enzyme sites in the DNA fragments were introduced via the primers) and the vector was subsequently electroporated into the respective S. enterica Enteritidis mutant strains. Cloning, PCR amplification, electroporation, plasmid extraction, and agarose gel electrophoresis were performed as suggested by Sambrook and Russell (2001). After DNA purification using the Wizard ® Genomic DNA Purification Kit (Promega Corporation, Madison, USA), Sanger sequencing was performed using 3730XL Applied Biosystems (Foster City, California, USA) by the High Performance Technologies Central Laboratory in Life Sciences (LACTAD, University of Campinas UNICAMP, Campinas, Brazil). Biofilm formation on polystyrene plates Biofilms were formed in 96-well plates (Cell Culture Plate, Nest, Biotechnology Co, China) containing 200 ÃŽ ¼L of cell suspension (1 106 cells/mL) of S. enterica Enteritidis PT4SEn wild-type or mutant strains in LB supplemented with 0.25% of glucose. Plates were incubated at 37 °C with orbital shaking at 140 rpm for 48, 72, and 120 h. At the end of the incubation period, planktonic cells were carefully removed, and biofilms were washed twice with 200 ÃŽ ¼L of saline solution (0.9% NaCl). The crystal violet staining method was used to assess total biofilm biomass. Each well of the biofilm plates was incubated with 200 ÃŽ ¼L of methanol for 15 minutes. Subsequently, methanol was removed and 1% (v/v) crystal violet solution was added, followed by a 5-min incubation period. Wells were washed with distilled water and finally 33% (v/v) acetic acid was added. The absorbance was measured at 570 nm. The colorimetric method based on the reduction of XTT (2,3- bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-5-(phenylamino)carbonyl-2H tetrazolium hydroxide; Sigma-Aldrich, USA) was used to determine cell activity (XTT is converted to a coloured formazan salt in the presence of metabolic activity). To each well of the biofilm plate, 200 ÃŽ ¼L of a solution containing 200 mg/L of XTT and 20 mg/L of phenazinemethosulphate (PMS; Sigma-Aldrich, Ukraine) was added. Microtiter plates were incubated for 3 h at 37 °C in the dark. The absorbance was measured at 490 nm. To assess the number of viable cells in biofilms, 200 ÃŽ ¼L of saline solution was added to each well before removal of the biofilm by scraping. For each sample, an aliquot of 1 mL (5 wells) was sonicated (20 s with 22% of amplitude; Ultrasonic Processor, Cole-Parmer, Illinois, USA) to promote biofilm disruption. The number of colony forming units (CFU) in biofilms was determined by performing 10-fold serial dilutions in saline solution, plating on LBA plates in triplicate, and incubating for 24 h. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of biofilm cells Biofilms of S. enterica Enteritidis PT4SEn wild-type and mutant strains formed in 24-well plates (Well Cell Culture Cluster, Costar) were dehydrated by a 15-min immersion in increasing ethanol concentrations (70, 95, and 100% ethanol [v/v]) and placed in sealed desiccators. The samples were mounted on aluminium stubs with carbon tape, sputter-coated with gold, and analysed with a JEOL JSM-5800LV scanning microscope. All experiments were carried out in duplicate. Biofilm formation at the air-liquid interface Biofilm formation at the air-liquid interface was assessed in S. enterica Enteritidis PT4SEn strains by inoculation of LB cultures without NaCl, followed by incubation at 28 °C without shaking. Every day for 10 days, each isolate was visually examined for pellicle formation. Experiments were performed in triplicate. Expression of curli fimbriae Bacterial colony morphology of S. enterica Enteritidis PT4SEn wild-type and mutant strains was analysed on LB agar without NaCl, supplemented with Congo red (1.01340.0025, Sigma-Aldrich, Germany; 40 ÃŽ ¼g/mL) and Coomassie brilliant blue G (B0770-5G, Sigma-Aldrich, China; 20 ÃŽ ¼g/mL). Bacterial cultures were spread on agar plates and the colour and degree of colony rugosity were determined after 96 h of growth at 28 °C. Images were captured with a camera (Nikon P500) and under an HBO 100 Carl Zeiss Illuminating microscope system. Cellulose production The fluorescence exhibited by bacteria after growth of S. enterica Enteritidis PT4SEn wild-type and mutant strains in LB plates with Calcofluor (Fluorescent Brightener 28; F3543-1G, Sigma-Aldrich, China; 200 ÃŽ ¼g/mL) served as an indicator of cellulose production. Fluorescence was analysed visually using an UV light (366 nm) after 48 h of growth at 37 °C. Statistical analysis Data were analysed using STATA software, version 13.0 (Stata Corp, College Station, TX, USA). Data from all assays were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Sidaks adjustment for multiple comparisons was performed after a significant fitting. The significance level was set at 5%. Results ihf mutants display reduced viability, biomass, and metabolic activity A decrease of about 1-2 log10 in number of viable cells was observed for the ihf mutants in comparison with the wild-type S. enterica Enteritidis PT4SEn strain by CFU counting (Figure 1-A). The differences observed were statistically significant (P < 0.05) for all periods of time evaluated. The introduction of the pACYC184 plasmid carrying ihfA or ihfB was generally associated with an increase in CFUs, but complementation did not completely restore the values to those obtained with the wild-type strain. No statistical differences were observed at 48 and 72 h of incubation between ΔihfAc and the wild-type strain. The same observation is valid for ΔihfB after 120 h of incubation (Figure 1-A). These results show that the restoration of ihfA or ihfB gene copies in mutant strains is generally associated with an increase in CFUs in biofilms. The total biofilm biomass, assessed by CV staining of S. enterica Enteritidis PT4SEn and mutant strains is presented in Figure 1-B. An increase in biomass is observed for the wild-type strain over time. However, this effect was not observed for the correspondent PT4SEn ihfAB double mutant. None of the mutants presented an increase in biofilm matrix density at 48 and 72 h of incubation (P < 0.05). The complemented PT4SEn ihfA and ihfB mutants (ihfAc and ihfBc) showed an increase in total biofilm biomass in comparison to the non-complemented mutants (Figure 1-B). All mutant strains exhibited a significant reduction in metabolic activity measured by the XTT assay for cells in biofilm (P < 0.05). In addition, the double mutant (ihfAB) showed the greatest reduction in metabolic activity at 72 and 120 h (Figure 1-C). ihf genes are essential for biofilm structure To further characterize biofilm formation and structure in strains lacking ihf genes, we performed scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of cells in biofilms. As shown in Figure 2, the absence of ihfA or ihfB drastically affects biofilm formation, as null mutants of S. enterica Enteritidis PT4SEn (Figure 2-D, E and F) exhibited a low amount of matrix and small number of cells compared to the wild-type (Figure 2-A). Complementation of ihf gene deletions by a wild-type copy of the corresponding gene promoted a significant restoration of biofilm formation (Figure 2-B and C). Pellicle formation at the air-liquid interface To further characterize the mutant strains with respect to their ability to form biofilms we analysed the biofilm formation at the air-liquid interface of cultures of the different strains. Cultures of the wild-type strain formed a thick and rigid pellicle after 10 days of growth (Figure 3-A). On the other hand, PT4SEn ihfA or PT4SEn ihfB mutant strains formed a less compact and fragile pellicle (not shown). Interestingly, the double mutant strain PT4SEn ihfAB did not form a visible pellicle at all at the air-liquid interface. Instead, cell deposition was observed at the bottom of the tube (Figure 3-B). Complementation with the wild-type copy of ihfA and ihfB restored the phenotype of the single mutants (PT4SEn ΔihfAc and PT4SEn ΔihfBc strains), which now formed a thick and rigid pellicle (not shown). Curli and cellulose Since curli and cellulose are important components in biofilm formation, we evaluated the role of IHF on their production. To this end, colony morphology was analysed on LBA plates supplemented with Congo red and Coomassie brilliant blue, as previously described.. enterica Enteritidis PT4SEn wild-type and PT4SEn ΔihfA and ΔihfB complemented strains exhibited a phenotype consistent with curli fimbriae and cellulose production, with red, dry, and rough (rdar) colony morphology (Figure 4-A to D). However, the PT4SEn ΔihfA, PT4SEn ΔihfB, and PT4SEn ΔihfAB mutants of S. enterica Enteritidis did not display the same colour and roughness, but instead exhibited a similar, but not identical, smooth and white (saw) morphotype, indicating a deficiency in the expression of curli fimbriae and probably also of cellulose (Figure 4-E to H). The expression of cellulose was also tested by screening the colonies for Calcofluor binding Cellulose production was observed for all strain s evaluated by this method, except for the double mutant ihfAB that was not fluorescent under an UV light source and was considered a poor producer of cellulose (Figure 5). Discussion The presence of microorganisms on food contact surfaces is one of the most common causes of food spoilage and transmission of foodborne diseases. Inadequate cleaning and disinfection of food-processing environments is the cause of major economic losses and represents a serious danger to public health. The ability of microorganisms to adhere and form biofilms makes disinfection even more difficult and challenging Infections with Salmonella enterica Enteritidis represent a major health problem and a significant burden on the food industry. About 80% of the infections are caused by biofilm formation In the matrix of a biofilm, bacteria grow on either biotic or abiotic surfaces, attaching to the surface and to each other, conferring resistance to immunity responses as well as antimicrobial agents As a consequence, antimicrobial treatments typically fail to eradicate biofilms. The need to create effective therapies to counteract biofilm infections is a pressing challenge in the food indus try The growing interest in understanding the regulatory network of gene activities during the transition from a planktonic to a sessile cellular lifestyle, prompted us to investigate the role of IHF in S. enterica Enteritidis biofilm formation. IHF has an important role in the regulation of gene expression and environment adaptability of S. Enterica Therefore, S. Enteritidis deletion mutants for ihfA, ihfB, or both genes (ihfAB) were employed in different assays to analyse biofilm formation. The logic behind this approach is based on the fact that IHF can act as a homodimer (IHFÃŽ ±ÃŽ ± or IHFÃŽ ²ÃŽ ²) or as a heterodimer (IHFÃŽ ±ÃŽ ²) The results presented here indicate an important role of this NAP in the formation of biofilms in S. enterica Enteritidis. All typical biofilm characteristics analysed in this study (CFU, biomass, and cellular metabolic activity) were significantly decreased in S. enterica Enteritidis mutant strains for ihfA, ihfB, or ihfAihfB. The biofilms formed by mutant strains exhibited a decreased matrix density compared with the wild-type strain. Therefore, these results indicate that IHF can influence the initial stage of biofilm formation by S. enterica Enteritidis, as the matrix is necessary in this phase. This is also supported by CV staining and SEM. The colony morphotypes observed in Congo red among wild-type and complemented strains exhibited the rdar morphotype, an indication of curli and cellulose production, while the mutant strains exhibited a similar but not identical saw morphotype, suggesting an altered expression of curli and probably also of cellulose. In fact, bacterial growth in calcofluor-containing medium indicated that the single ihf-mutants were able to produce cellulose, but the ihf-double mutant exhibited some deficiency in the production of this polysaccharide. Previously, Gerstel, Park, and Rà ¶mling demonstrated that the ΔihfAB double mutant of two S. enterica Typhimurium strains caused a reduction in CsgD expression and an altered rdar morphotype suggesting a role for IHF in curli expression in S. enterica Typhimurium. Curli is expressed by two divergent operons, csgBAC and csgDEFG. CsgD is a major regulator of curli expression and biofilm formation. This gene activates transcription of csgA and csgB that encodes the major (CsgA) and the minor (CsgB) curli subunits In addition, csgD also regulates cellulose production Therefore, IHF plays an important role in biofilm formation in S. enterica Typhimurium. Our results demonstrate a similar role for IHF in the biofilm formation of S. enterica Enteritidis. Despite high genetic similarity, the Enteritidis and Typhimurium serovars differ in various ecological and host-relationship parameters However, the regulation of biofilm formation by IHF in both serovars suggests that IHF plays a cen tral role in S. enterica biofilm biogenesis. However, additional studies of IHF function on biofilm biogenesis in other S. enterica serovars are needed to further clarify this question. In addition, the single ihf mutants also exhibited a phenotypic alteration in biofilm formation, indicating that both subunits are necessary for appropriate biofilm production. In our results, all the ihf mutants showed a deficiency for curli fimbriae production by phenotypic tests. To some extent, a deficiency in cellulose production was also observed, particularly in the double ihf-mutant. The complementation of the ihfA and ihfB mutants by the introduction of a pACYC184 plasmid carrying the wild-type genes reverted the deficiency in biofilm biomass, cell metabolism, and CFUs, but in the majority of the tests the values did not reach those observed for the wild-type strain. This is probably due to a dose effect of IHFÃŽ ± or IHFÃŽ ², despite the low copy number (about 15 copies per cell) of the plasmid used. In fact, the expression of ihf genes is finely regulated and depends on the growth phase The two operons bcsABZC and bcsEFG are responsible for cellulose biosynthesis in both S. enterica Enteritidis and S. enterica Typhimurium. This was demonstrated by the construction of non-polar mutants of bcsC and bcsE genes that formed a fragile pellicle at the air-liquid interface of LB medium The same authors also showed that cellulose-deficient mutants were more sensitive to chlorine treatments, indicating that the deficiency in the production of extracellular matrix can leave the cells more susceptible to the action of some chemical agents. In our study, IHF mutant strains formed a less compact pellicle in LB compared to wild-type strains. In addition, the ihf double mutant did not form an air pellicle at all, suggesting a role for IHF in the expression of cellulose. These findings corroborate a previous study in which S. enterica Typhimurium ihfAB mutants exhibited reduced bcsC transcription when evaluated by microarray analysis, but further studies are needed to better charact erize the underlying molecular mechanisms. Karaca, N Akcelik, and M Akcelik (2013) also evaluated pellicle formation at the air-liquid interface of 31 S. enterica isolates. They showed that the growth rate of isolates with a rigid pellicle was greater than that of the ones forming a fragile pellicle. Biofilm production at the air-liquid interface can facilitate and contribute to gas exchange, while enabling the acquisition of nutrients and water from the liquid phase. Biofilms at air-liquid and solid-air interfaces can cause serious problems in industrial water systems. In conclusion, our results indicate that IHF has an important regulatory role in biofilm formation of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis. Moreover, both IHF subunits appear to have a role in this process. Our data pave the way for further studies investigating the mechanisms involved in the regulation of biofilm formation by IHF. Acknowledgements This work was supported by grants from Fundaà §Ãƒ £o de Amparo à   Pesquisa do Estado de Sà £o Paulo (FAPESP 2014/13412-8) and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientà ­fico e Tecnolà ³gico (CNPq), Brazil. BL, DBN, and GPM were supported by a FAPESP fellowship (FAPESP 2012/25426-8, 2012/10608-3, and 2012/05382-6, respectively). CHW and CPC were supported by fellowships from CNPq (141629/2012-6 and 140786/2012-0, respectively). The authors have no other relevant affiliations or financial involvement with any organization or entity with a financial interest or conflict.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

History Of United States Coinage (coins) Essay -- essays research pape

History of United States Coinage Through United States history presidents like Lincoln, Roosevelt, Washington, Kennedy, Eisenhower and others have been displayed on U.S. Coin heads. The United States mint has also been responsible for designs such as the Indian head, the buffalo, and the ever famous lady liberty. Through the years the U.S. Mints have extended into three branches San Francisco, Denver, and Philadelphia (Yeoman, 2001 edition 101). Those branches are responsible for making certain marks on the coins to show that they are not counterfeit. The mints have also come up with what they call their proof standards. Coins have been around for many years, they have had changing mints, designs, and variety's which have all been represented by past events and presidents. The U.S. Mint has it's own standards as in how good of a state the coin is in after wear and tear. The best a coin can ever be is called the proof state which is a specially made coin distinguished by sharpness of the detail and usually with a brilliant mirror like surface (Yeoman, 1999 edition 5). The next state down is the mint state (ms) these coins show no trace of being worn nor blemishes or color loss (Yeoman, 1999 edition 6). Third down is called perfect uncirculated (ms-70) these coins show perfect new condition, showing no trace of wear, no evidence of scratches, handling or contact with other coins, very few regular issued coins are ever found in this condition (Yeoman, 1999 edition 7). The fourth down state is choice uncirculated (ms-65) which is an above average uncirculated coin which may be brilliant or lightly toned and has very few contact marks on the surface or rim (Yeoman, 1999 edition 8). The fifth state down is the uncirculated (ms-60) which has no trace of wear, but may show a number of contact marks, and surface may be spotted or lack some luster (Yeoman, 1999 edition 9). The sixth state down is choice about uncirculated (au-55) it bears evidence of light wear on only the highest points of the design, most of the mint luster remains (Yeoman, 1999 edition 10). The seventh state down is about uncirculated (au-50) this coin has traces of light wear on many of the high points and at least half the mint luster is still present (Yeoman, 1999 edition 11). The eighth state down is choice extremely fine (ef-45) the design is lightly worn through, but all features are shar... ...d for 14 years.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  B.The half dollar is worth two quarters in the U.S. .   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   1.The Walking Liberty half dollar was minted for 31 years.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   2.The Franklin half dollar was minted for 15 years.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   3.The Silver Kennedy half dollar was only minted in 1964.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   4.The Bicentennial Kennedy half dollar was minted for one year.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  C.The Silver dollar was the most admired coin in the U.S. Mint.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   1.The Morgan Silver dollar was minted for 43 years.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   2.The Peace Silver dollar was minted for 14 years.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   3.The Eisenhower Silver dollar was minted for seven years.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   4.The Bicentennial Silver dollar was minted for one year.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Essay on Blame in Shakespeares King Lear -- King Lear essays

King Lear is To Blame In William Shakespeare's play, "King Lear", the main character, King Lear, claims to be "a man more sinned against than sinning"(3.2.60-61). Though a good king, King Lear's own actions cause his family and kingdom to fall apart. The sins committed against King Lear are a result of his personal faults of rashness, blindness, and foolishness. King Lear's hot temper and hasty decisions play a significant role in his fall from grace. His old age has caused him to behave impulsively, without any consideration for the consequences of his actions. When Lear asks his devoted daughter Cordelia to express her love for him, he becomes upset with her because she cannot put her feelings into words. He does not realize that she cares deeply for him and disowns her by saying, "Here I disclaim all my paternal care, propinquity and property of blood, and as a stranger to my heart and me hold thee from this for ever (1.1.120-123)." It is only later, when Cordelia has left him, that Lear realizes he had made a wrong decision. In another fit of rage, Lear ...

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Naxal Movement

SEPTEMBER 2008 IPCS Research Papers Naxal Movement in India: A Profile Rajat Kujur Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies 1 New Delhi, INDIA  © 2008, Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies (IPCS) The Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies is not responsible for the facts, views or opinion expressed by the author. The Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies (IPCS), established in August 1996, is an independent think tank devoted to research on peace and security from a South Asian perspective.Its aim is to develop a comprehensive and alternative framework for peace and security in the region catering to the changing demands of national, regional and global security. Address: B 7/3 Lower Ground Floor Safdarjung Enclave New Delhi 110029 INDIA Tel: 91-11-4100 1900, 4165 2556, 4165 2557, 4165 2558, 4165 2559 Fax: (91-11) 4165 2560 Email: [email  protected] org Web: www. ipcs. org CONTENTS Executive Summary†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. A Short History †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 2 Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) Liberation †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 6 People’s War Group (PWG)†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 7 Maoist Communist Centre (MCC) & Communist Party of India (Maoist) †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã ¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 11 About the Author †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 4 Recent IPCS Publications †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 14 Executive Summary In order to understand the current phase of Naxalism, we need to understand different aspects of organizational transformation that have occurred within the Naxal movement, since the genesis and current phase of the movement is a reflection of continuity and change. To understand its continuity over the decade, one has to understand its dynamics of change, just as to understand the changing nature of the Naxal movement, o ne has to understand the factors responsible for its continuity.And this reestablishes the dynamic character of the movement. The characteristic feature of the Naxal movement is its disorganized character which led to some interesting formulations, quite uncommon in the history of Movement Organizations (MO)1. The fragmented character of the movement gave rise to a plethora of possible trends and groupings and thereby, paved the way for new avenues of organizational conflict. Due to its fragmented character, the movement Historically socio-political movements whether extremist, revolutionary or peaceful, operate through organizations which are known as Movement Organizations.The movement organizations are mostly characterized as loosely structured, decentralized and prone to political challenges and counter cultural practices. 1 witnessed the comeback of many past leaders and cadres from oblivion. This aspect of Naxal organizational politics is important to understand, as it enabled the reemergence of a whole range of questions that were assumed to have been resolved once and for all. A Short History To understand the genesis of the Naxal movement, one needs to locate it within the framework of the Communist movement in India.To be more specific, any study on the Naxal movement cannot overlook the importance of the rise and fall of the Telangana Movement (1946-51), since Telangana will always remain the glorious chapter in the history of peasant struggles for Indian communists. In fact, it was the first serious effort by sections of the communist party leadership to learn from the experiences of the Chinese revolution and to develop a comprehensive line for India’s democratic revolution. On the other hand, the experience in Telangana also facilitated the growth of three distinct lines within the Indian communist movement.The line promoted by Ranadive and his followers, rejected the significance of the Chinese revolution, and advocated the simultaneous a ccomplishment of the democratic and the socialist revolutions, based on city-based working-class insurrections. The group drew inspiration from Stalin and fiercely attacked Mao as another Tito. The second line mainly professed and propagated by the Andhra Secretariat, drew heavily on the Chinese experiences and the teachings of Mao, in building up the struggle of Telangana.The Andhra leadership, while successfully managing to spearhead the movement against the Nizam, failed to tackle the complex question of meeting the challenge of the Government of India. The Nehru government embarked on the road to parliamentary democracy, conditioning it with reforms like the ‘abolition of the Zamindari system’. All these objective conditions facilitated the dominance of a centrist line, put forward by Ajay Ghosh and Dange. This line characteristically pointed out the differences between Chinese 2 and Indian conditions and pushed the party along the road to parliamentary democracy.In 1957, the Communists succeeded in forming a government in Kerala, which however, was soon overthrown. Additionally, following the India-China war, the party split into two during 1964 – Communist Party of India (CPI) and Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPI [M]). While the CPI preached the theory of ‘peaceful road to non-capitalist development’, the CPI (M) adopted the centrist line. Though there were serious differences on ideological and tactical grounds, both the parties went ahead with their parliamentary exercises and formed the United Front government in West Bengal.In the backdrop of such organizational upheavals within the Indian Communist movement, an incident in a remote area transformed the history of left-wing extremism in India. In a remote village called Naxalbari in West Bengal, a tribal youth named Bimal Kissan, having obtained a judicial order, went to plough his land on 2 March 1967. The local landlords attacked him with the help of their go ons. Tribal people of the area retaliated and started forcefully recapturing their lands.What followed was a rebellion, which left one police sub inspector and nine tribals dead. Within a short span of about two months, this incident acquired great visibility and tremendous support from cross sections of Communist revolutionaries belonging to the state units of the CPI (M) in West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir. Though the United Front Government of West Bengal, headed by the CPI (M) was able to contain the rebellion within 72 days sing all repressive measures possible, these units had a formal meeting in November 1967, as a result of which the All India Coordination Committee of Communist Revolutionaries (AICCCR) was formed in May 1968. ‘Allegiance to the armed struggle and non-participation in the elections’ were the two cardinal principles that the AICCR adopted for its operations. However, differences c ropped up over how an armed struggle should be advanced and this led to the exclusion of a section of activists from Andhra Pradesh and West Bengal, led respectively by T. Nagi Reddy and Kanhai Chatterjee.On the question of the ‘annihilation of the class enemy’, the Kanhai Chatterjee group had serious objections, as they were of the view that the annihilation of the class enemy should only be undertaken after building up mass agitations. However, a majority in the AICCCR rejected this and the AICCCR went ahead with the formation of the Communist Party of India (MarxistLeninist) in May 1969. This led Chatterjee to join the Maoist Communist Centre (MCC). The CPI (M-L) held its first congress in 1970 in Kolkata and Charu Mazumdar was formally elected its general secretary.Since then, both the CPI (M-L) and the MCC continued with their respective forms of armed struggle for the next couple of years. During this period, Charu Majumdar became the undisputed Naxalite guru and with the organizational skills of Kanu Sanyal and Jaghal Santhal, the movement spread to different corners of the country. The country witnessed the euphoria of a Maoist revolution. However, it was far more shortlived than expected. What was generally perceived by Indian as well as Chinese Communist revolutionaries as the final enactment of the revolution, in reality, proved to be no more than a dress rehearsal.As hundreds of CPI (ML) cadres lost their lives, and thousands were put behind bars, the movement witnessed confusion, splits and disintegration. Charu Majumdar’s larger-than-life image also had its negative impact, for after his death in 1972, the central leadership of CPI (ML) virtually collapsed. The history of the Naxal movement postCharu Mazumdar, is characterized by a number of splits, brought about by personalized and narrow perceptions about the Maoist revolutionary line and attempts at course-correction by some of the major groups. Even Kanu Sanyal, one of the founders of the movement, could not escape this.He gave up the path of â€Å"dedicated armed struggle† by 1977 and accepted parliamentary practice as a form of revolutionary activity. It was during 1974 that an influential group of the CPI (ML), led by Jauhar (Subrata Dutt), Nagbhushan Pattnaik and Vinod Mishra, launched a major initiative, which they termed ‘course-correction’. This group renamed itself the CPI (M-L) Liberation in 1974, and in 1976, during the Emergency, adopted a new line that called for the continuation of armed guerilla struggles along with efforts to form a broad antiCongress democratic front, consisting even non-communist parties.The group also suggested that pure military armed struggle should be limited and there should be greater emphasis on mass peasant struggles, in an attempt to provide an Indianized version of Marxism-Leninism- Maoism. However, during the next three years, the movement suffered further splits with leaders, such as K ondapalli Seetharamaiah (Andhra Pradesh) and N. Prasad (Bihar) dissociating themselves from the activities of the party. This led to Prasad forming the CPI (M-L) (Unity Organization) and Seetharamaiah started the People's War Group (PWG) in 1980.While Seetharamaiah's line sought to restrict the ‘annihilation of class enemies’, the PWG's emphasis was on building mass organizations, not developing a broad democratic front. 3 Since then, the principal division within the Naxalite movement has been between the two lines of thought and action, as advanced by the CPI (ML) Liberation and the PWG. While Liberation branded PWG a group of â€Å"left adventurists†, the PWG castigated the Liberation group as one of the â€Å"revisionists† imitating the CPI (M).On the other hand, the growth of MCC as a major armed group in the same areas, created the scope for multifarious organizational conflicts among the Naxal groups. Liberation took a theoretical stand of correctin g the past mistake of ‘completely rejecting parliamentary politics’. On the other hand, PWG and MCC completely rejected the parliamentary democratic system of governance and vowed to wage ‘people’s war for people’s government’. In the process, while the Liberation group registered its first electoral victory in Bihar in 1989; Naxalite factions such as the CPI (M-L) New Democracy, the CPI (ML) S.R. Bhajjee Group and the CPI (M-L) Unity Initiative, emerged in the state. The following years witnessed certain distinct phenomena in the history of the Naxal movement. First, the intraorganizational conflict and rivalry among different groups touched several high points, resulting in the loss of a considerable number of cadres of rival groups. Secondly, despite the large-scale inner conflicts, there were always ongoing efforts at various levels to strive for unity.Thirdly, 1990 onwards, the affected state registered a considerable increase in the numb er of violent incidents and at the same time, a considerable change in the policy approach of the government was also witnessed. While the Naxal movement has mostly been characterized by fragmented groups and innumerable splits; successive governments at the national and state levels were never able to follow a uniform approach to deal with the problem of Naxalism, thus, leading to a marked impact in the growth of the Naxal movement. There are three broad currents of the Naxal movement.For reasons which will become obvious from the following discussion, this paper will examine the Communist Party of India (ML) Liberation, Peoples War Group (PWG), Maoist Communist Centre (MCC) and the Communist Party of India (Maoist). It will examine the circumstances in which these groups were formed, their ideological bases and programmes, and the similarities and dissimilarities between them. The paper, in particular, will look into different aspects of organizational politics in relation to thes e Maoist organizations and try to locate their impact on the course of the contemporary Naxal movement.The following are the main issues on which there appear to be considerable differences among the Naxal groups and which are primary causes of conflict between them. †¢ The analysis of the first phase (196771) of the Naxalite movement and the line of annihilation that was followed The position that armed struggle is the principal form of struggle and the armed guerilla squad, the primary unit of struggle Since the principal form of struggle is rmed struggle, the entire activity of the agrarian struggle should be underground Whether the contradiction between feudalism and the Indian masses is the principal contradiction in Indian society or whether India has emerged as a capitalist state and hence, the contradiction between capitalism and general public is the principal contradiction Whether it would be prudent to form a united front with various forces and movements like the da lit, †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ 4 farmers’, ethnic and regional, and ecological movements etc. However, these are not the only issues; several other issues pertaining to groundlevel reality and control of territory are crucially linked to the functioning of Naxalite organizations. Prakash Louis, People Power: The Naxalite Movement in Central Bihar (New Delhi: Wordsmiths, 2002) p. 277. 2 5 Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) Liberation Historically, the origin of CPI (ML) Liberation dates back to 1974. However, the post-emergency phase of 1977, when most leaders of the Communist movement were released from jail was the time when the activities of Liberation first came to notice.The Party Central Committee (PCC), in a move to unite the splinter groups which owed their origin to CPI (ML), called a meeting during 30 January-2 February 1981. However, the meet did not deliver expected results. â€Å"From this point onwards whereas the PCC group goes on to become irrel evant and splits up into various factions, the M-L movement begins to polarize between the Marxist-Leninist line of CPI (ML) (Liberation) and the anarchist line of CPI (ML) (People's War). †3 During 1982, the Indian People's Front (IPF) was launched in New Delhi at a national conference.In due course, IPF became the party's open political platform, actively intervening in national politics. Same year, the Third Party Congress took place at Giridih, Bihar, where the issue of participation in elections was finalized. This shift in the outlook of CPI (ML) Liberation proved to be vital in designing the subsequent course of activity of the Naxal movement. The Liberation group, according to Bhatia, â€Å"considers itself the true inheritor of the CPI (ML) legacy, its political line has changed dramatically from that of the original CPI (ML). 4 With this strategic shift in functioning, the CPI (ML) Liberation recorded its first electoral victory under the banner of the IPF in 1989 a nd Ara (one Lok Sabha Constituency in Central Bihar) sent the first â€Å"Naxalite† member to Parliament. 5 In a special conference convened in July 1990, the party decided to resume open functioning. This decision was formalized at its fifth Congress in December 1992. In 1994, the Indian People’s Front was disbanded.The Election Commission recognized the party in 1995, and since then the CPI (ML) has been contesting successive elections at national and state levels. The CPI (ML) Liberation, though functioning over ground within the parliamentary democratic setup, has not completely disbanded the path of armed rebellion. â€Å"The Party does not rule out the possibility that under a set of exceptional national and international circumstances, the balance of social and political forces may even permit a relatively peaceful transfer of central power to revolutionary forces.But in a country where democratic institutions are based on essentially fragile and narrow foundat ions and where even small victories and partial reforms can only be achieved and maintained on the strength of mass militancy, the party of the proletariat must prepare itself for winning the ultimate decisive victory in an armed revolution. A people's democratic front and a people's army, therefore, remain the two most fundamental weapons of revolution in the arsenal of the Party. †6 This again points to the dilemmas within the ultra left movement, which is very often reflected, in the unpredictable character of the Naxal movement.Thirty Years of Naxalbari, an un-dated publication of CPI (ML) Liberation. Bela Bhatia, Naxalite Movement in Central Bihar, Economic and Political Weekly, April 9 2005. 4 3 5 6 History of Naxalism, Hindustantimes. com A Party document of CPI (ML) Liberation titled The General Programme. 6 . People’s War Group (PWG) PWG is the most important among all the splinter groups representing the Naxal movement because the dominant line within the Naxa l politics today, is the PWG line of thought. Though it is popularly known as PWG or PW, its official nomenclature is Communist Party of India––MarxistLeninist (People’s War).If today, Naxalism is considered as the greatest internal security problem and Naxals claim to be running parallel government in different parts of the country, its credit mostly goes to the PWG. â€Å"The CPI (ML) (People’s War) was formed on Lenin’s birth anniversary on April 22, 1980. †7 Kondapalli Seetharamaiah, one of the most influential Naxalite leaders from Andhra Pradesh and a member of the erstwhile Central Organizing Committee of the Communist Party of India––MarxistLeninist (CPI-ML), is the founding father of the PWG; who later, was ironically expelled from the group. The programme of our Party has declared that India is a vast ‘semi-colonial and semifeudal country’, with about 80 per cent of our population residing in our villages . It is ruled by the big-bourgeois big landlord classes, subservient to imperialism. The contradiction between the alliance of imperialism, feudalism and compradorbureaucrat- capitalism on the one hand and the broad masses of the people on the other is the principal contradiction in our country. Only a successful People’s Democratic Revolution i. e.New Democratic Revolution and the establishment of People’s Democratic Dictatorship of the workers, peasants, the middle classes and national bourgeoisie under the leadership of the working class can lead to the liberation of 30 years of Naxalbari, An undated Maoist literature, Vanguard Publication, p. 30. Vanguard was the organ of PWG. 7 our people from all exploitation and the dictatorship of the reactionary ruling classes and pave the way for building Socialism and Communism in our country, the ultimate aim of our Party.People’s War based on Armed Agrarian Revolution is the only path for achieving people’s d emocracy i. e. new democracy, in our country. †8 Rejecting the parliamentary democratic system of the country and branding individual annihilation as individual terrorism, PWG declared that people’s war was the only path to bringing about a people’s government in the country. From the above quote from an important PWG party document, it is clear that there were organizational, strategic and tactical conflicts going on within the CPI (ML), which paved the way for the split and creation of a more radical party.Broadly speaking, the party programmes of CPI (ML) Liberation were mostly focused on the cause of peasants, while the group led by K. Seetharamaih wanted the party to be a platform for peasants, workers, tribal and other weaker sections of society. It was the prime agenda of Liberation to build up a political front focusing on peasant struggles, whereas PWG was more interested in the formation of mass organizations instead of any democratic front. One of the renowned guerrilla leaders of the erstwhile PWG summarizes the essence of the conflict between CPI (ML) Liberation and CPI (ML) People’s War. In the Liberation group, which at one time was one of the strong groups defending Charu Mazumdar’s revolutionary line, after the martyrdom of ‘Path of People’s War in India – Our Tasks! ’, a comprehensive PWG party document highlighting its aims, objectives and strategies. The document was adopted by All-India Party Congress, 1992. We obtained this document from one of the principal ideologue of the PWG. 8 Com. Johar, with the leadership falling into the hands of Vinod Mishra, they began betraying the Indian revolution.As part of a conspiratorial plan, a once revolutionary party was gradually changed into a revisionist party, like the CPI and CPM. The armed resistance struggles against the state’s attacks, taking place under the then leadership of Liberation, was ended. The armed struggle to crus h the feudal private armies was made a secondary task. In this way, they diverted the entire group away from the basic path outlined by the unified CPI (ML), and particularly of its founder, Com.CM — that of protracted people’s war — into becoming agents of the ruling classes, by surrendering them to the parliamentary path. They converted the Com. Johar-led Liberation, from being a revolutionary movement, into a legalist, reformist and parliamentary movement; and changed the underground organization into an open opportunist and revisionist organization. †9 The above two official statements of the PWG clearly suggest that the birth of PWG which resulted from a split within the CPI (ML-Liberation) was on account of the dynamics of conflict among a host of its cadres.For a considerable period after its birth, PWG’s activities were chiefly limited to Andhra Pradesh, while the CPI (ML) Liberation continued to hold its turf in Bihar. It was during this pe riod that another organization came into existence on 1 January 1982. It was named the Communist party of India (ML) Party Unity, which came into existence due to a merger between CPI (ML) Unity Organizations and Central organizing Committee CPI (ML). Hereafter, left-wing extremism in India witnessed some of the worst-ever conflicts which again forced many organizations to take a position and adopt new tactics.Bihar has always remained a strong battleground of Naxal Sharvan, the then Secretary Bihar State Committee of CPI (ML) Peoples War, in an interview given to People’s March, Volume 2, No. 3, March 2001. 9 operations and ironically, in Bihar, most of the clashes were between CPI (ML) Party Unity and CPI (ML) Liberation. When these conflicts were taking a toll on the cadres on both sides, another development was simultaneously taking place. In August 1998, Party Unity merged with CPI (ML) People’s War Group and the group came to be known as People’s War. â₠¬Å"The merger of the two arties is the culmination of the unity process which began in March '93 and continued for over five years during which differences on several political, ideological and organizational questions were resolved through thread-bare discussion. †10 The statement continues, â€Å"The emergence of the united Party — the Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) [People's War] -does not mark the completion of the process of unification of the genuine communist revolutionary forces in India. The newly Unified Party will continue its efforts in right earnest to achieve this unification.We also call upon the other genuine revolutionary elements in the various M-L parties in India who are being led astray by both right and left opportunist leadership, to fight against these deviations and rally under the banner of the United Party. The United Party pledges itself to avenge the death of thousands of martyrs who fell in the course of the ongoing democratic revolution in India paved with blood by these martyrs until their cherished goals are accomplished. This is the era of Revolutions. 11 With this merger, the PWG became a force to reckon with in Bihar and in other areas where PU had a presence. Further developments suggest that with the merger, the element of armed rebellion of the Naxal movement became stronger, while on the 10 People’s War literature titled ‘Joint Declaration by Communist Party of India (ML) People’s War and CPI (ML) (Party Unity)’, August 1998. Ibid. 11 8 other hand, with its parliamentary practices, Liberation was loosing its turf to PWG. Liberation, which once controlled the whole of central Bihar, was now loosing its territory and supporters to PWG and MCC.Not only in Bihar, but also elsewhere, Liberation was systematically shrinking on the map of Naxalite politics. By advocating electoral methods and not being able to make an impressive mark, the Liberation’s way of movement became weak and the PWG’s armed operations started gaining momentum. So while the Liberation, with its changed modus operandi was being reduced to a small political party, the PWG in the same period, managed to register its presence outside Andhra Pradesh and gradually gained strongholds in different areas of Bihar, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Chattisgarh, and Maharashtra.While the conflict between PU and Liberation made both groups suffer the loss of considerable numbers of their cadres; as already stated, it also resulted in the merger of PU and PWG and ultimately the violent consolidation of the movement. The formation of People’s War also resulted in tactical changes in several aspects of the Naxal movement in general. ‘In our agenda for a new democratic revolution, there are two aspects — the agrarian revolution and fight for nationality. ’12 This statement shows the amount of organizational change witnessed by the Naxal movement in all those years.In 1967 it started in the name of ‘agrarian revolution’, which gradually took the stance of replacing the parliamentary form of government; but the question of nationality was never raised. This reflects the pattern of conflict between PW and Liberation. By questioning ‘nationality’, PW wanted to make it clear that it wanted a broad revolutionary pattern and while ‘land 12 to tillers’ could be a programme, it could not become the sole agenda of the revolution. Between 15-30 November 1995, the PW conducted an All India Special Conference in some unknown locality of Dandakaranya.There, it adopted two important party documents. The ‘Party Programme’ as adopted in the Conference reads, â€Å"India is a semi-feudal, semi-colonial society; here the New Democratic Revolution (NDR) has to be completed victoriously paving way to the Socialist Revolution and to advance towards the ultimate goal of Communism. The Indian people ar e weighed down by three big mountains: feudalism, imperialism and comprador bureaucrat capital; these are the targets to be overthrown in the present stage of NDR.The four major contradictions in the present-day Indian society are: the contradiction between feudalism and the broad masses; the contradiction between imperialism and the Indian people; the contradiction between capital and labour and the contradiction within the ruling classes. While the first two are fundamental contradictions to be resolved through the NDR, the contradiction between feudalism and the broad masses is the principal contradiction at the present stage. India is a multi-national country–a prison-house of nationalities and all the nationalities have the right to self-determination including secession.When NDR is victoriously completed, India will become a voluntary and genuine federation of all national people's republics. †13 The second document, which was adopted in the conference, was the do cument on the ‘Strategy and Tactics'. It reads, â€Å"The political 13 Interview of Muppalla Lakshmana Rao alias Ganapathy, the then head of the Communist Party of India-Marxist-Leninist People's War. http://www. rediff. com/news/1998/oct/07gana. htm This report on the Special conference was posted in a website (www. cpimlpwg/repression. html) which claimed itself as the unofficial website of PW.The website has been withdrawn. During its existence the site claimed it to be the unofficial website of PWG. But during my interaction with many PW rank and file I found that it was no less then their official website. 9 strategy to be pursued in the present stage of NDR in India is one of forming a broad united front of all the anti-feudal, antiimperialist forces–the working class, the peasantry, the petty bourgeoisie and the national bourgeoisie–under the leadership of the working class to overthrow the common enemies–feudalism, imperialism and comprador bureau cratic capital.The military strategy or the path of Indian Revolution is the path of protracted people's war i. e. , liberating the countryside first through area wise seizure of power establishing guerilla zones and base areas and then encircling the cities and finally capturing power throughout the country. The unevenness in the economic, social and political development of Indian society calls for different tactics i. e. , forms of struggle and organization, to be pursued in different regions of the country, while the political tactic line throughout the country remains the same.In urban areas the political and mass work should be carried out observing utmost precaution and the organizational work should proceed keeping in view the long-range perspective. Caste is a peculiar problem in India; and appropriate forms of organization and struggle should be evolved vigorously to fight out untouchability, caste discrimination and to finally root out the caste system. The tactics of boy cott of elections have to be pursued for a long time in the prevailing conditions in India; and participating in parliamentary and assembly elections under any pretext only weakens the class struggle. 14 These two documents, containing different organizational aspects of PW, make a clearcut demarcation for the issues pertaining to organizational conflict between the Liberation and PW. The People’s War, on the basis of its assessment of the people’s level of preparedness for an armed struggle, discarded ‘annihilation of class enemies’ as the only form of struggle and stressed instead, on floating mass organizations. It established several front organizations. 14During the 1980s, the Radical Students’ Union and Rayatu Kuli Sangham emerged as organizations with an impressive mass following and most of the PWG’s present base and political cadres developed through that practice. However, during the 1990s, the growth of militarization became the ch aracteristic feature of the PWG. The formation of People’s Guerrilla Army (PGA), special guerrilla squads, Permanent Action Team (PAT) and Special Action Team (SAT) were the distinctive features of PWG activities for quite some time, before it merged with MCC to form the CPI (Maoist). 5 15 In response to a government decision to launch coordinated action against the Naxalites by police forces of the various Indian States affected by Naxal violence, the PWG formed the PGA, its military wing in December 2000 by reorganizing its guerrilla force. The PGA functions under a single operational command, the Central Military Commission. In the Indian State where the PGA has a presence, there is a State Military Commission and in special guerrilla zones there is a Zonal Military Commission.A Regional Military Commission supervises a group of State Military Commissions or Zonal Military Commission Each Regional Military Commission reports to the Central Military Commission. All armed ca dre of the PWG are organized under the PGA. Ref: â€Å"People's Guerrilla Army†, http://www. satp. org/satporgtp/countries/india/terror istoutfits/peoples_guerrilla_arms_left_wing_extre mists. htm Ibid. 10 Maoist Communist Centre (MCC) & Communist Party of India (Maoist) The next important group within the broad spectrum of the Naxal movement is the Maoist Communist Centre (MCC).It stands apart from a number of organizations, since, conventionally speaking, it was never a part of the CPI (ML), which many claim as the mother of all Naxal organizations. â€Å"The MCC, while supporting the Naxalbari struggle, did not join the CPI (ML) because of some tactical differences and on the question of Party formation. †16 The MCC was formed on 20 October 1969, around the same time that the CPI (ML) was formed, although during those days it was known as Dakshin Desh. It was in 1975 that the group renamed itself the Maoist Communist Centre.In 2003, MCC merged with the Revolutionary Communist Centre of India-Maoists (RCCI-M) to form the Maoist Communist Centre-India (MCC-I). Right from its inception, the MCC stood for taking up armed struggle as the main form of resistance and waging a protracted people's war as the central task of the party. This position of the MCC has been repeatedly expressed and emphasized in a multitude of Maoist literature. â€Å"This armed revolutionary war is the war of the armed people themselves; it is ‘Protracted People's War' as shown by Mao Tse Tung.The concrete economic and political condition of India leads to the very conclusion that the path shown by the great leader and teacher, Mao Tse Tung, the path of the Chinese Revolution, that is, and to establish a powerful people's army and people's militia and to establish dependable, strong and self-sufficient base areas in the countryside, to constantly consolidate and expand the people's army and the base areas, gradually to encircle the urban areas from the countryside by liberating the countryside, finally to capture the cities and 16 o establish the state system and political authority of the people themselves by decisively destroying the state power of the reactionaries — this very path of the protracted People's War is the only path of liberation of the people of India, the path of victory of the new democratic revolution. â€Å"17 Communist Party of India (Maoist) The Naxal movement in India entered yet another phase of organizational transformation with the merger of two of the principal armed organizations, viz.People’s War (PW) and the Maoist Communist Centre of India (MCC-I), which resulted in the formation of the Communist Party of India (Maoist). â€Å"The formation of the unified Communist Party of India (Maoist) is a new milestone in the history of the revolutionary communist movement of India. A unified Maoist party based on Marxism-Leninism-Maoism is a long delayed and highly cherished need of the revolutionary minded and oppressed people of the country, including all our ranks, and also all the Maoist forces of South Asia and internationally.Now, this long-aspired desire and dream has been transformed into a reality. †18 This statement, made by the first Secretary of CPI (Maoist) Ganapathy, assumes a great deal of importance as it 17 Red Star, Special Issue, p. 20. Red Star is the English language organ of the MCC, as quoted by Aloke Banerjee in a pamphlet titled â€Å"Inside MCC Country†, dated June 2003. Red Star was the English language organ of the MCC. Also quoted in ‘MCC India Three Decades Leading Battalions of the Poor’, http://www. awtw. org/back_issues/mcc_india. htm.Though it denies but many treat this as the unofficial organ of the Revolutionary Internationalist Movement (RIM. ) Ganapathy, in an Interview given on the on the occasion of the formation of CPI (Maoist). People’s March, Vol. 5, No. 11-12, NovemberDecember 2004. 18 30 years of Naxalbari, p . 36. 11 reflects the organizational politics that was going on all these years between these two organizations representing the Naxal movement. The improvised aim of the CPI (Maoist) as announced on the occasion of its formation is to establish a compact revolutionary zone, stretching from Nepal to Bihar to Andhra Pradesh and beyond.While continuing their pursuit of a people’s democracy; the ultimate aim of the CPI (Maoist) is to seize power through protracted armed struggle. The press statement, issued on the event of announcing the merger, stated, â€Å"The immediate aim and programme of the Maoist party is to carry on and complete the already ongoing and advancing New Democratic Revolution in India as a part of the world proletarian revolution by overthrowing the semi-colonial, semi-feudal system under the neo-colonial form of indirect rule, exploitation and control.This revolution will remain directed against imperialism, feudalism and comprador bureaucratic capitalism. This revolution will be carried out and completed through armed agrarian revolutionary war, i. e. protracted people's war with the armed seizure of power remaining as its central and principal task, encircling the cities from the countryside and thereby finally capturing them. Hence, the countryside as well as the PPW (Protracted People's War) will remain as the ‘center of gravity' of the party's work, while urban work will be complimentary to it. 19 According to the same press release, the CPI-Maoists â€Å"will still seek to unite all genuine Maoist groups that remain outside this unified party. â€Å"20 It is important to examine the significance of the merger, particularly when earlier attempts had been unsuccessful. In fact, the merger is largely being seen as a result of the gradual convergence of views of these two groups on areas such as the role of the party, approaches to revolution and adoption of strategies and tactics. In the formative years, Charu Mazumdar and Kanhai Chatterjee represented two irreconcilably different lines and approaches to ‘revolution’.At the time of the formation of the Communist Party of India (MarxistLeninist) CPI-ML in 1969, the Dakshin Desh (the earlier form of the MCC), remained opposed to the process due to sharp differences with the CPI-ML over issues such as the formation of a communist party, existence of revolutionary mass struggle and preparedness of the people to participate in it. The joint press statement released by the erstwhile General Secretaries of PW and MCC (I) highlighted the essence of the merger. â€Å"In the past history there were many splits within the M-L movement.But splits are only one side of the coin; the brighter side was that there were continuous efforts to unify the revolutionaries. The CPI (ML) (PU), though it had its origins in Bengal, it spread and strengthened by unifying several revolutionary groups. The CPI (ML) (PW), though it originated in Andhra Pradesh and Ta mil Nadu, it unified with revolutionaries in almost all the states where it was working. The MCC too, had originated in Bengal, unified many revolutionaries groups in it in many States and became the MCCI. 21 This statement underlines the continuous process of organizational politics within the broad spectrum of the Naxal movement, which resulted from organizational conflict. Looking back, the need for a joint, unified platform was felt by the leadership of both 21 19 â€Å"Maoist-Influenced Revolutionary Organizations in India† available at â€Å"Maoist-Influenced Revolutionary Organizations in India† available at 20 Ganapathy, in an Interview given on the on the occasion of the formation of CPI (Maoist). People’s March, Vol. 5, No. 11-12, NovemberDecember 2004. 12 he parties as early as 1981. â€Å"The PW and MCC began unity talks from their very first meeting in 1981. However, the reason for the delay in the process was the lack of continuity of leadership. The arrest of Comrade Kondapally Seetaramaiah (KS), the leader of the PW, and later the internal crisis of the PW and split in the Central Committee (CC) delayed the unity process for several years. In the early eighties, the MCC lost its two top leaders Comrades Amulya Sen (AS) and Kanhai Chatterjee (KC), which had some negative impact, resulting in further delay in the unity process. 22 However, this is not to suggest that the formation of the CPI (Maoist) was the final stage of the Naxal movement. As one official Maoist document puts it, â€Å"Revolutions never proceed in a straight line. The history of all successful revolutions shows this. The path is zig zag, there are ups and downs, there is victory and defeat repeated a number of times†¦.. before final victory. Of course, there is no final victory until the stage of communism is reached. 23 The above-mentioned analysis makes the forceful plea that since the Naxal movement is essentially a political problem, it needs to be examined from the perspective of organizational politics. From the above discussion we can derive the following conclusions. First, the history of the Naxal movement is the history of a continuous process of organizational conflicts, splits, and mergers. Second, the movement essentially represents simultaneous, though not necessarily peaceful coexistence of many streams; and looking from this angle, the movement can be said to have its presence in all parts of 22 23 he country. Third, the growth of the Naxal movement is closely linked with the ongoing process of organizational conflict. This is because the ultimate political objective behind all organizational exercise, as reflected by the statements of various senior Naxalite leaders, is to build a leftist alternative and mobilize people against increased ‘imperialist intervention’ and ‘proimperialist policies’ pursued by the union government, in support of ‘revolutionary war’ based on the Chinese leader, Mao’s theory of organized peasant insurrection.Similarly, the history of the naxal movement, right from its first phase of 1967, demonstrates that even if there has been a continuous evolution in terms of their understanding of the Indian situation, the focus of the movement, its character, and the fighting capabilities and financial resources of these groups; they have remained more or less consistent as far as their core ideology is concerned. Barring the Liberation, they all reject the parliamentary system of governance and want to bring about a fundamental change in the nature of the Indian state.For this, they have adopted the strategy of protracted armed struggle, which entails building bases in rural and remote areas and transforming them first into guerrilla zones and then liberated zones, besides area-wise seizures and encirclement of cities and finally, the seizure of political power and achievement of nation-wise victory. Fourth, the history of the movement so far, has been the history of conflicts and splits. However, one cannot deny that its history is also one of mergers. 4 Ibid. State Repression, this is the title of the document which was posted at www. cpimlpwg/repression. html. The website now has been withdrawn. During its existence the site claimed it to be the unofficial website of PWG. But during my interaction with many PW rank and file I found that it was the official website. 24 For more information on integrated checkposts, see the website of the Ministry of Home Affairs (http://mha. gov. in/BM_Div/BM_IntCheck(E). pdf). 13 .About the Author Dr. Rajat Kumar Kujur teaches Political Science at the Gangadhar Meher Junior College, Sambalpur, Orissa. He can be reached at [email  protected] com. 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