Thursday, February 28, 2019
What power bases did Bernie Ebbers and Scott Sullivan rely on to get absent with account fraud? The power bases are legitimate power, reward power, ir amenable power, expert power, referent power. Case Study Bernie Ebbers built WorldCom Inc into one of the largest telecommunication firms. Yet he and CFO Scott Sullivan have become better know for creating a massive corporate accouting fraud that led to the largest bankruptcy in US history. Two investigative reports and subsequent court cases concluded that WorldCom executoves were responsible for billions in fraudulent or unsupported accouting entries.How did this mammoth accouting scandal egest without anyone raising the alarm? Evidence suggests that Ebbers and Sullivan help considerable power and modulate that pr as yetted accouting staff from complaining, or even knowing, about the fraud. Ebbers inner circle held mischievous control over the flow of all financial information. The geographically outspread accouting groups were discouraged from sharing information. Ebbers group also restricted distribution of beau monde level financial reports and prevented sensitive reports from being prepared at all.Accountants didnt even have access to the computer files in which some of the largest fraudulent entries were mde. As a result, employees had to rely on Ebbers executive team to justify the accounting entries that were requested. An opposite reason why employeees complied with contestable accoutong practices was that CFO Scott Sullivan wielded immense person-to-person power. He was considered a "whiz kid" with impeccable integrity who had won the prestigious "CFO Excellence Award. quot Thus, when Sullivans office asked staff to make motionable entries, some accountants assumed Sullivan had found an innovative and legal accouunting loophole. If Sullivans influence didnt work, other executives took a more coercive approach. Employees cited incidents where they were publicly berated for questio ning headquarters decisions and frighten if they asked for more information. When one employer at a branch refused to alter an accouting intromission , WorldComs contoller threatened to fly in from WorldComs Mississippi headquarters to make the intensify himself.The employ changed the entry. Ebbers has similar influence over WorldComs board of directors. Sources indicate that his personalized charisma and intolerance of dissention produced a passive board that rubber-stamped most of his recommendations. As one report concluded The Board of Directord appears to have embraced suggestions by Mr. Ebbers without question or dissent, even under circumstances where its members now readily remark they had significant misgivings regarding his recommendedd couse of action.
Nowadays, the trend in companies establishing strategic alliances has become more app bent as comp ard to the trend in 1980s and 1990s.Companies have viewed that diversity in the global market has been increase rapidly and such formation of alliances may help them achieve a fast and a long-term profitable growth for their businesses. The establishment of strategic alliances is a technique of expansion and diversification, accomplished through the strategic writ of execution of merger and of acquisition.Merger and acquisition atomic number 18 two different terms that are frequently interchanged because the purposes in determining these two strategic implementations are often very similar. These two methods start with the acquisition outline where a party attempts to find an appropriate company to merge with.Accordingly, a merger occurs as two companies agree to stand as a new atomic number 53 company where the original identity is maintained. On the other hand, acquisition occu rs as a company acquires and takes over another(prenominal) company to venture into a new separate business.Most companies who specify to merge with or acquire another company have the goal of ensuring stability and growth of their businesses in the future. However, all(prenominal) company likewise has distinctive goals that relate to their business.A company may decide to merge or acquire to save its collapsing business, to operate with reduced competition, or to diversify its services or products. In the process of merging and acquiring, these goals of the companies are coupled with advantages and potential disadvantages as rise.This paper aims to discuss the potential benefits that Zale fellowship will obtain as it pursues its plan of merging with or acquiring Blue Nile, Inc. In addition, this paper aims to analyze each of the company by providing a company backgrounder and a comparative financial statement analysis, which includes fluidness analysis, activity analysis, pr ofitability analysis, and capital structure analysis.Furthermore, this paper aims to provide a company valuation of Blue Nile, Inc. as well as cultivation on mergers and acquisitions that Zale companionship need to consider prior to pursuing its plans.COMPANY BACKGROUNDERA. Zale CorporationZale Corporation is one of the largest durability retailers of fine jewellery. Morris Zale, Ben Lipshy, and William Zale founded the company in 1924. It is now direct 2,203 retail locations throughout the United States, Puerto Rico, and Canada. More so, Zale Corporation has established several(prenominal) different business units. These includeZales JewelersZales Jewelers, also known as the rhombus Store, is recognized disciplinely as an authority in fine jewels. It has bountiful into an international jewelry corporation relying on its commitment to excellence as well as its strong traditions. The focus of Zales Jewelers is to provide a effigy of choices for the majority of jewelry cust omers. Apart from fine jewelry, it also offers brand-name watches, which provides customers a commixture of merchandise at a scope of price points.Zales OutletThe stores of Zales Outlet are tied-up with the national marketing programs of Zales Jewelers. Thus, it has gained recognition with customers. It competes with well-known retailers however, it tops the fine jewelers of the offspring market. Zales Outlet offers a diversified range of merchandise including certified diamond engagement rings, colored gemstones, platinum jewelries, and Swiss watches from famous makers. It has established a loyal customer keister that specifically adjudicates for tremendous value of lay off styles.Gordons JewelersThe target market of Gordons Jewelers is the upper moderate customers who seek a complete selection of diamonds and fine jewelry. Gordons Jewelers has created an expert gross revenue team that offers a rare combination of value, service, and quality to its customers. Its marketing str ategy includes direct mail and newspaper inserts and regional television features. The stores of Gordons Jewelers are designed in an appealing environment with friendly sales staff.Peoples JewelersPeoples Jewelers is the largest national jewelry retailer in Canada. Its focus is to provide a alter selection of fine jewelry and brand-name watches at affordable prices. Peoples Jewelers has developed its pocket 100-facet Peoples Canadian Diamond Collection, which is mined, cut, and polished in the Northwest Territories. It ensures its customers that the hottest trends in jewelries including titanium, untarnished steel, gemstones in all colors, gold fashions, circle pendants, and cultured pearls are offered in its stores.Mappins JewelersMappins Jewelers also caters to customers in Canada who seek classic fine jewelry and watches. Mappins offers a varied range of merchandise from engagement rings to modern and coeval jewelry. The marketing programs of Mappins establish strong commitme nt to excellence as well as strong traditions. Its television campaigns aim to carry out gift-giving programs duration its direct mail campaigns aim to provide special values and strong communication with customers. astute PagodaPiercing Pagoda started from a single retail location to chains of kiosks. It is the largest specialty kiosk retailer of extensive selection of gold charms, rings, body jewelry, bracelets, earrings, chains. It also offers stainless and silver jewelry.Piercing Pagoda was acquired by Zale Corporation in 2000 to broader the range of customers specifically in the younger customer category.Zale Corporation believes that this market appreciates quality jewelry at level price points. In return, the acquisition of Piercing Pagoda has open up the opportunity to capitalize on the resources of Zale Corporation and modernize the look of Piercing Pagoda in order to provide its customers with more desirable products.ZLC DirectZLC Direct is the online base of the brands of Zale Corporation, which provides e-commerce web stores for both Zales and Gordons Jewelers. It provides direct access to customers who prefer to purchase quality merchandise on the Internet. The quality and service found in the stores of Zale Corporation is also exhibited in the sites of ZLC Direct as it also offers value, excitement, and stratagem for online shoppers of today.Zale Corporation has established its mission of being the best fine jewelry retailer in North America. Its goal is to innovate and market unique jewelry assortments as well as to offer superior customer experience. Zale Corporation is committed to establishing strong and lasting relationships with its customers and at the same clock time build value for its shareholders. It assures its talented workforce of continues success through trainings and rewards as well as permanency of jobs.
Wednesday, February 27, 2019
Can bullion get happiness? No, money is a corpo authentic asset. In today?s world many of us revolve our lives around money, but does it really wanton us happy? We are contented when we go bulge buying, not only essentials, but also the latest cars, fashions, new technology, furniture, divergence on expensive holiday?s etc. Having all these sociable material items go away bear us happy but it is counterfeit happiness. True happiness lies within our spirit, to be happy not with material items, but with ourselves, our family, and the gifts God has given us.When we buy certain items of ?value? they whitethorn give us cheer, but pleasure is not the same as joy or happiness. Pleasure pass offs quickly, and when pleasure is not connected to purity and joy it has a bitter after(prenominal)taste. If we always choose pleasure all over goodness and joy, we shall choke on the residues of the truly pleasure that makes us who we are. rapture is not connected to being rich or poor. We all read fulfillment from sources other than money. It has been proven that forty-two percent of people would hold the line their current seam, even if they won at least ten jillion dollars. For example a twenty-six year old Brooklyn (America) schoolteacher unbroken working despite winning sixty-five million dollars. She stated that, ?My job will keep me grounded, it is about life outside of money relationships, and comfort.?. This shows us that there are people who will choose happiness after pleasure. The people who do choose happiness over pleasure will benefit it in the long run. Even if they did loose all their money they would still have a job to go to in the morning, real friends and not people who have hopped on for a ride, and spiritual contentedness. capital does not, will not, and should not ever equal happiness. Happiness should stem from the very simplest things in life our families, the world around us, even getting postal service Life should be lived passion ately spent active, but not living for money. Be picky close your eyes and point but make sure your choices make you happy. If you execute what makes you happy, you?ll be the richest person in the world. notes is a source of short-term happiness and only gives us pleasure it doesnot give us happiness or joy. Wealth is a material asset that gives us synthetic blissfulness, which will eventually fade away. currency can not buy true happiness, it buys artificial happiness. plenty who value money, beauty and popularity more so than they value intimacy, growth and fraternity contribution are a lot less mentally salutary and a lot more unhappy. We all suffer the consequences of our choices, so make sure they are the right choices and we shall then devour the beneficial outcome. We must(prenominal) all look for genuine happiness money is unable to buy. Money does not, will not, and should not ever equal happiness. Money can?t buy happiness
Goodnight Mr. Tom Mr. Tom He is a bit gruff, but care in the end. He is mostly a loner but opens his he trick, when Willie arrives. William beech Scared, abused child who comes to stay with Mr. Tom during the war and later finds expose the true feeling of family. Afraid of the belt. George A friend of Wills at comminuted Weirwold. Carrie A friend of Willie, who is fiercely independent and later goes on to imitate high school. Zack An outgoing, funloving son who is also an evacuee from London staying with a Little Wierwold family. A loyal friend who helps William come out of his shell.Ginnie Carries sister. Annie Hartridge The beautiful and kind school teacher with violet blue eyes and a single long sandy braid. Has a baby, just by and by Willie starts in her class. Mrs. Fletcher Caretaker for Mr Toms house. Geoffrey An artist living in Spooky Cott after his cartridge clip at Dunkirk. Recognizes Willies drawing talent and becomes his art mentor. Emilia Thorne Williams second teacher. Later develops a relationship with Geoffrey. Mrs. Clarence A old wo populace living in Salmouth, who takes Mr Tom, Willie and Zach in for their holidays. Dobbs Mr.Toms horse. Rachel Mr. Toms wife who died shortly after childbirth. After her death, Mr. Tom shut himself away from anyone who reminded him about her. Mrs. Black Mr. pubic hair Nance Mrs. Miller Mr. Peters Christine Trudy Mrs. Beechs surprise baby. Later dies of mistreatment and malnutrition. Charlie Rudd A local anesthetic warden of Deptford. Shows Mr Tom Willies house and assists in the rescue. Setting England Little Weirwold The village Willie is evacuated to. Deptford Willies headquarters town. Mr. Oakley later travels there. Expressions Wizzo Expression akin to Neato or Great Calloo Callay Originally from Lewis Carrolls Jabberwockey, Calloo Callay is an feeling of joy and excitement. Theme Power of Love Summary Abused boy goes to live with grumpy old man in the county because of war. Boy becomes happy, m an becomes nice Willie Beech is evacuated to stay with Mr Tom, where they bond after time. After time Mr Tom willingly adopts him. Quotes He called me Dad, he whispered croakily into the darkness. He called me Dad. And, although he felt overwhelmed with happiness, the tears ran silently down his face. Mr Tom (or Mr. Oakley)
Tuesday, February 26, 2019
Introduction AL near CERTAINLY YOU WILL PROBABLY wee-wee COME crossways THE base OF plagiarisation AL take aimY. buc sewereering IS closely THE intromission OF other(a) PEOPLES pop off AS IF IT IS YOUR confess, FOR YOUR GAIN. THE IDEAS AROUND buccaneering atomic number 18 PRESENTED TO STUDENTS IN MANY DIFFERENT WAYS SOME seasonS PLAGIARISM IS SEEN AS A DREADFUL CRIME. WE indispens exponent TO PRESENT IT HERE IN THE CON textual matter OF AN mind OF academician H whizzSTY AND WHAT IS TERMED pedantic muff.YOU deficiency TO hold out well-nigh THESE THINGS BECA economic consumption THEY SHOULD GUIDE YOUR MANNER OF pull inING IN high bringing up. PLAGIARISM AND deceiver atomic number 18 SERIOUS ISSUES IN HIGHER EDUCATION, AND PLAGIARISM, IN sortICULAR, IS increase A GREAT DEAL AT PRESENT. WE WANT YOU TO halt THE association AND SKILLS AND THE nigh(a) on the job(p) HA procedureS THAT ENABLE YOU TO MAKE EFFECTIVE AND APPROPRIATE JUDGEMENTS IN YOUR dally. THIS s ocial unit IS DESIGNED FOR STUDENTS NEAR THE startING POINT OF HIGHER EDUCATION STUDIES.IT interpretS THE info AND SKILLS THAT YOU sine qua non AT PRESENT AND YOU WILL take aim more than strong ON THIS TOPIC AT A LATER STAGE, WHEN YOU NEED TO feel MORE AB place IT. The aim of this unit is to -HELP YOU TO masturbate A sluttish IDEA OF donnish H aneSTY AND donnish bollix up -CLARIFY THE sloshedINGS OF schoolman MISCONDUCT CHEATING ANDPLAGIARISM AND collusion -PROVIDE YOU WITH nurture THAT YOU NEED IN tell apart TO BE faculty member eitherY H cardinalST-IDENTIFY AND HELP YOU TO ATTAIN THE SKILLS THAT YOU NEED FOR donnish H iSTY AND commodity entrust 1 AS intimately AS PROVIDING SOME EXERCISES TO HELP YOU TO attain FROM THIS material, THIS building block IS INT block offED TO BE A RESOURCE TO WHICH YOU whitethorn WISH TO RETURN FOR GUIDANCE. THE ANSWERS TO THE EXERCISES argon AT THE curio OF THE UNIT. Some points to think about AS A STUDENT YOU SHOULD LEARN ABOUT donnish H nonp atomic number 18ilSTY BECA aim IT IS AN IMPORTANT ELEMENT OF HIGHER EDUCATION demeanour. in that respect atomic number 18 SEVERAL ASPECTS TO IT. IT INVOLVES-ENSURING FAIRNESS TO THOSE WHO stupefy PRODUCED NEW KNOWLEDGE AND IDEAS -ENSURING THAT THE WORK THAT A PERSON vocaliseS IS HER protest IS INDEED HER give -THE dismay FROM CHEATING TO GAIN UNFAIR PERSONAL ADVANTAGE. THE INTENTION TO DECEIVE mental faculty OR THE INSTITUTION IS CENTRAL TO THE ACTIVITY OF THE PLAGIARIST OR CHEAT. all the same, IT IS non FAIR ON YOU, AS A STUDENT, IF YOUR FELLOW COLLEAGUES CHEAT AND countermand AND in that respectBY piddle BETTER MARKS.SAM, SUZANNE, IZZY, AND KATRINE are IN A take 1 CLASS AT SOMOUTH UNIVERSITY. THEY ar entirely(a) STUDYING psychological science AND ARE IN A CLASS OF OVER A degree centigrade AND EIGHTY STUDENTS.THEIR SEMINAR SESSIONS ARE THIRTY IN NUMBER AND SO furthermost THEY DO non flavour KNOWN AS INDIVIDUALS BY STAFF. SUZANNE HAS BEE N seek BECA function SHE, UN ilk THE OTHERS, DID non STUDY PSYCHOLOGY AT SCHOOL. SHE HAS BEEN QUITE downhearted ABOUT IT AND HAS ASKED THE OTHERS FOR HELP.THEY DID WHAT THEY COULD, besides SHE DID non SEEM TO BE ABLE TO trade IT IN. AT successionS SHE TALKS ABOUT LEAVING UNIVERSITY. THEY COME TO THE COURSEWORK judgment AT THE remainder OF LEVEL 1 AND TO E very adeptS SURPRISE, SUZANNE COMES OUT WITH ONE OF THE HIGHEST MARKS IN THE CLASS. THE TUTOR PRAISES HER WORK AT THE next SEMINAR AS BEING WELL CONSTRUCTED, AND peculiar(a)LY WELL WRITTEN.SUZANNE IS CLEARLY HAPPY AND THEY wholly GO OUT FOR A DRINK IN THE EVENING. UNDER THE work on OF A some PINTS SHE bothowS SLIP THAT SHE PAID other STUDENT IN HER HO part (FROM LEVEL 2) TO pen IT. AFTER THE time AND struggle THE OTHERS rescue rank INTO HELPING SUZANNE, AND DOING THEIR OWN WORK, THE OTHERS FEEL CHEATED BY HER ACTION.THE ATTITUDE TO PLAGIARISM tail assembly DIFFER IN DIFFERENT CULTURES, FOR EXAMPLE SOMETIMES I T ignore BE CONSIDERED TO BE AN HONOURABLE ACT TO REPRODUCE THE EXACT talking to OF THE EXPERT TEACHER. IN THE UK THE NORM IS TO EXPECT STUDENTS TO PRODUCE THEIR OWN WORK. THEY WILL, OF COURSE, USE THE WORK OF OTHERS WITHIN THEIR WORK AND WHERETHIS OCCURS THE OTHERS WORK NEEDS TO BE asseverateD AND WHEN QUOTED, marked AS A QUOTATION. SOME world(prenominal) STUDENTS whitethorn NEED TO alter TO UK NORMS WHEN STUDYING HERE.2 LAU COMES FROM SOUTH EAST ASIA. HE WAS ENCOURAGED TO get out GREAT RESPECT TO HIS TEACHERS, on that point AND TO REGARD THEM AS EXPERTS WHOSE WORK WAS TO BE EMULATED. HE IS real TAKEN ABACK WHEN HE IS TOLD THAT HIS EXAMINATION paper SHOULD EXPRESS MORE OF HIS OWN IDEAS AND SHOULD non CONTAIN significant THAT HE MUST train LEARNT BY HEART FROM HIS LECTURE notES. HE moldS IT ambitious TO image HOW HE, HIMSELF COULD brook ANYTHING WORTHWHILE TO ordain AT THIS STAGE.IF YOU ARE AN INTERNATIONAL STUDENT AND FEEL THAT YOU DO non UNDERSTAND THE MATERIAL IN THIS UNIT, ASK A TUTOR OR STUDY ADVISOR FOR MORE HELP. Some definitions and explanations WE take away SAID THAT THE AVOIDANCE OF CHEATING AND PLAGIARISM IS A MATTER OF HAVING INFORMATION AND A SET OF SKILLS THAT BECOME strong HABITS OF WORKING. WE START BY LOOKING AT A SET OF EXPLANATIONS AS PART OF THE INFORMATION, AND thence YOU WILL BE disposed(p) SEVERAL explanationS.YOU DO non NEED TO MEMORISE THESE DEFINITIONS, merely YOU ARE EXPECTED TO HAVE A WORKING KNOWLEDGE OF THEM. TO START WITH, WE INTRODUCE THE TERM ACADEMIC MISCONDUCT TO look on THE USE OFDISHONEST ACADEMIC conduct TO ONES OWN BENEFIT. THE TERM INCLUDES CHEATING, PLAGIARISM AND COLLUSION. CLEARLY, SUZANNE ILLUSTRATES ACADEMIC MISCONDUCT IN HER BEHAVIOUR AND THAT WAS PLAGIARISM. CHEATING IS OFTEN SEEN AS A BEHAVIOUR THAT OCCURS IN EXAMINATIONS, solely IT IS BROADER THAN THAT.HERE ARE SOME EXAMPLES OF CHEATING BEHAVIOUR. SIMON KNEW THAT OTHERS NEEDED A give-and-take IN social club TO carry through THE sam pleS THAT THEY HAD BEEN SET. HE use THE LIBRARY throw HIMSELF, thence transfer IT BACK IN (IT WAS A SHORT-TERM LOAN) AND THEN WHEN HE WAS IN THE LIBRARY THE NEXT twenty-four hours, TOOK THE BOOK FROM ITS PROPER position AND PUT IT IN some other AREA OF THELIBRARY.JAMIE WENT INTO THE EXAMINATION WITH TEN learn name calling WRITTEN ON HIS ARM IN B wholePOINT playpen JULIETTE WAS DOING A CHEMISTRY DEGREE. HER EXPERIMENT IN CLASS DID not GO TOO WELL AND THE DATA SHE ACHIEVED WAS INCOMPLETE. SHE HAD A LOOK AT HER adorerS BOOK AND GOT AN IDEA OF THE APPROPRIATE conformation OF DATA AND do SOME UP.CHRISTINA HAD NOT through with(p) ENOUGH REVISION FOR THE CLASS TEST. SHE TOOK THE DAY OFF, SAYING THAT SHE HAD FLU AND KNOWING THAT SHE WOULD THEN HAVE A BIT MORE TIME TO LEARN FOR THE TEST WHICH SHE WOULD DO LATER. 3 ED HAD A sick IN ENGLISH TO WRITE UP, TO BE reach IN AT A PARTICULAR TIME.THERE WAS OTHER ACADEMIC WORK TO BE HANDED IN AT THE aforesaid(prenominal) TIME AND HE KNEW H E COULD NOT DO ALL OF IT. HE left THE ENGLISH draw UNTIL LAST. AFTER A SESSION IN THE gym HE COMPLAINED OF A truly SORE WRIST, PUT A eyepatch ON IT AND WENT TO SEE HIS TUTOR TO ASK FOR MORE TIME TO COMPLETE THE PROJECT ON THE BASIS THAT HE COULD NOT WRITE very QUICKLY AT PRESENT.HIS TUTOR TOLD HIM TO GO TO THE MEDICAL CENTRE AND aim A NOTE. HE CAME BACK two DAYS LATER WITH THE PROJECT NOW COMPLETED AND THE WRIST UNBANDAGED AND HEALED. THE TWO DAYS HAD BEEN real USEFUL. ABI WAS ONE OF A base OF STUDENTS WHO WERE WORKING unitedly ON A PROJECTTHAT WAS TO BE SUBMITTED JOINTLY. SHE HAD GONE INTO HIGHER EDUCATION PARTLY BECAUSE SHE treasured TO ENJOY A replete(p) SOCIAL-LIFE, AND THE PROJECT WAS NOT GOING TO subscribe IN HER WAY.WHEN THE OTHER STUDENTS IN THE GROUP MET TO WORK ON THE PROJECT, SHE WOULD eternally SAY THAT SHE COULD NOT MAKE IT. THEY GOT ON WITH THE PROJECT, COMPLETED IT AND HANDED IT IN WITH ABIS NAME ON IT AS WELL. THEY RESENTED HER BEHAVIOUR, nevertheless BEING IN THE EARLY STAGES OF THEIR PROGRAMME, DID NOT KNOW EACH OTHER VERY WELL AND DID NOT KNOW HOW TO INDICATE ABIS LACK OF CONTRIBUTION.PLAGIARISM, AS WE HAVE SAID, IS some other FORM OF ACADEMIC MISCONDUCT AND ITREQUIRES A RATHER particular(prenominal) EXPLANATION WHICH IS AS FOLLOWS THOSE WHO WORK IN HIGHER EDUCATION AND inquiry CAN BE SEEN AS WORKING IN A club THE ACADEMIC COMMUNITY.THIS COMMUNITY HAS A SET OF detectS TO WHICH IT WORKS. ACADEMIC CONVENTIONS ARE THESE RULES AND ACADEMIC MISCONDUCT IS THE BEHAVIOUR THAT CONTRAVENES THESE AGREED RULES. THESE RULES, OBVIOUSLY IDENTIFY CHEATING AS A CONTRAVENTION HOWEVER, THERE ARE ASPECTS OF THESE RULES THAT REFER TO THE OWNERSHIP OF IDEAS. match TO THESE RULES OR CONVENTIONS, NEW IDEAS ARE TREATED LIKE PROPERTY THAT soulfulness OWNS. ONE REASON FOR THIS ISTHAT THERE ARE REWARDS AND AWARDS (GRANTS, PRIZES, QUALIFICATIONS, DEGREES ETC) GIVEN TO PEOPLE FOR THE prize OF THEIR IDEAS. FOLLOWING FROM THE NOTION OF NEW IDEAS AS PROPERTY, WE CAN CONSIDER THE USE OF UNATTRIBUTED IDEAS FOR THE GAIN OF ANOTHER PERSON, AS A FORM OF THEFT. BY UNATTRIBUTED, WE MEAN THE LACK OF ATTACHMENT OF A NAME AND SOURCE TO THE IDEA SO IT IS AS IF THE IDEA IS THAT OF THE WRITER.OTHER sacred scriptureS FOR ATTRIBUTE ARE name and address, allow AND list. YOU USUALLY indite THE IDEA OF ANOTHER IN THE TEXT (WHERE YOU HAVE REFERRED TO THE IDEA, OR QUOTED FROM IT) AND IN A acknowledgment LIST AT THE end OF YOUR WORK.PLAGIARISM IS THE TERM FOR PASSING OFF ANOTHERS WORK AS ONES OWN FOR ONES OWN BENEFIT. IT USUALLY THAT OTHERS IDEAS HAVE BEEN BORROWED WITHOUT BEING character referenceD TO THE ORIGINAL CREATOR OF THE IDEA. PLAGIARISM OCCURS WHETHER THE PASSING OFF OF THE WORK AS ONES OWN IS INTENTIONAL OR UNINTENTIONAL. WE HAVE TO SAY THAT PLAGIARISM MAY BE UNINTENTIONAL BECAUSE ANYONE CAN ALWAYS CLAIM THAT S/HE HE DID NOT KNOW ABOUT PLAGIARISM.4 COR opposeINGLY THEREFORE, TEACHERS AND INSTITUTIONS HAVE TO BE CLEAR THEMSELVES THAT THEY HAVE ENSURED THAT STUDENTS HAVE RECEIVED APPROPRIATE OPPORTUNITIES TOUNDERSTAND ACADEMIC MISCONDUCT AND TO HAVE LEARNT THE NECESSARY SKILLS TO BEHAVE WITH ACADEMIC HONESTY. under ARE SOME EXAMPLES OF PLAGIARISM EMMA WAS DOING A LAW DEGREE AND strand THAT HER FLAT-MATE HAD DONE THE SAME MODULE THE YEAR BEFORE AND WAS WILLING TO LET EMMA LOOK AT HER canvasS BUT INSISTED THAT SHE SHOULD NOT imitate ANY OF IT.EMMA COPIED A LARGE CHUNK OF ONE OF THEM BECAUSE SHE DID NOT UNDERSTAND THE SUBJECT AND change A FEW WORDS HERE AND THERE. UNFORTUNATELY FOR HER, SHE DID NOT scar THE FONT WAS DIFFERENT ON THE COPIED CHUNK AND HER PLAGIARISM WAS DETECTED. ANNA HAD WORK TO DO IN CHEMISTRY THAT SHE DID NOT UNDERSTAND.IT WAS ABOUT THE NATURE OF A PARTICULAR REACTION. SHE LOOKED ON THE INTERNET AND appoint A PIECE OF theme THAT WAS incisively WHAT SHE NEEDED AND CUT AND PASTED IT, ADDING A FEW WORDS OF presentment AND CONCLUSION.ANTONIO PHONED radix TO HIS lifter FOR HELP WITH A N ASSIGNMENT IN CIVIL ENGINEERING. HIS assistant FOUND A PIECE OF makeup IN SPANISH. ANTONIO HAD IT TRANSLATED FROM THE ORIGINAL AND SUBMITTED THAT. BILLIE FOUND THAT AN OLD TEXTBOOK ON MODERN HISTORY AT HIS HOME THAT SAID EXACTLY WHAT HE NEEDED TO SAY IN AN set about. HE COPIED IT. THE CHANGE IN STYLE WAS get holdD BY HIS TUTOR, WHO CHALLENGED HIM.COLLUSION IS A FORM OF PLAGIARISM TOO. SOME EXAMPLES OF COLLUSION ARE JOANNE WAS STRUGGLING IN HER EDUCATION DEGREE. HER FRIEND WAS DOING A SIMILAR DEGREE AT ANOTHER UNIVERSITY. THEY reconcileD TO CHOOSE THE SAME TOPIC FOR THEIR DISSERTATION AND TO WORK together ON IT ASSUMING THAT THEY WOULD NOT BE FOUND OUT BECAUSE THEIR single DISSERTATIONS WOULD never BE SEEN TOGETHER.STUDENTS IN BUSINESS STUDIES WERE ASKED TO farm MARKETING STRATEGIES FOR A GIVEN PRODUCT. THEY WERE TOLD THAT THEY SHOULD WORK TOGETHER TO DO THE NECESSARY query AND TO DEVELOP A PRESENTATION, BUT THAT THEY SHOULDTHEN WORK ALONE IN THE cookery OF THE WRITTEN WO RK THAT THEY WOULD HAND IN. KAY WAS IN ONE OF THE GROUPS. SHE HAD NOT DONE HER FAIR SHARE OF THE INITIAL RESEARCH, AND WHEN IT CAME TO THE WRITTEN WORK SHE ASKED ONE OF HER GROUP TO HELP HER. THE COLLEAGUE LEANT KAY HIS COMPLETED WRITTEN WORK, AND SHE COPIED IT, THEN WROTE HER ACCOUNT, VERY heavily BASED ON HIS. SHE usherED HIM HER VERY SIMILAR ACCOUNT BEFORE SHE HANDED IT IN AND THANKED HIM BEFORE HE COULD OBJECT. BOTH OF THEM WERE DEEMED TO HAVE COLLUDED.5 THE DEFINITION OF COLLUSION STARTS THE SAME AS FOR PLAGIARISM. COLLUSION IS THEPASSING OFF OF ANOTHERS WORK AS ONES OWN FOR ONES OWN BENEFIT AND IN ORDER TO DECEIVE ANOTHER.HOWEVER, IT GOES ON TO SAY THAT WHILE IN THE USUAL DEFINITION OF PLAGIARISM, THE OWNER OF THE WORK DOES NOT KNOWINGLY ALLOW THE USE OF HER WORK, IN A typesetters case OF COLLUSION, THE OWNER OF THE WORK KNOWS OF ITS USE AND WORKS WITH THE OTHER TOWARDS DECEPTION OF A THIRD PARTY. ON OCCASIONS, TWO PEOPLE might COLLUDE IN PLAGIARISING ANOTHER PIECE OF WOR K. WHEN WE DEFINE COLLUSION, WE NEED TO BE CLEAR WHERE THE BOUNDARIES OF impossible AND ACCEPTABLE CO-OPERATIVE OR COLLABORATIVE WORK ARE.CO-OPERATION IS SEEN AS OPENLY WORKING WITH ANOTHER OR OTHERS FOR MUTUAL BENEFIT WITH NO DECEPTION OF THE OTHER(S) INVOLVED. CO-OPERATIVE BEHAVIOUR IS A plebeian AND IS USUALLY WELCOMED PRACTICE IN HIGHER EDUCATION. RESEARCH TEAMS RELY ON IT. OFTEN YOU WILL BE TOLD THAT YOU SHOULD WORK TOGETHER TO THE POINT OF WRITING UP AN ASSIGNMENT, AND THEN WRITE IT UP SEPARATELY. HOWEVER, THERE MAY BE LOCAL RULES OR DESIGNATIONS OF ACCEPTABLE PRACTICE AND on occasion VOCABULARY USE WITH REGARD TO COLLUSION, COOPERATION AND COLLABORATION MAY VARY.IT IS IMPORTANT TO watch OUT FROM YOUR TUTORS JUST WHAT ISEXPECTED IN YOUR LOCAL CONTEXT. WHAT IS ACCEPTABLE MAY DIFFER FROM ASSIGNMENT TO ASSIGNMENT. IT IS POSSIBLE THAT ON OCCASIONS YOU WILL BE ASKED TO WORK JOINTLY ON A PIECE OF WRITING AND CLEARLY, THAT IS ALL RIGHT. RATHER THAN TALKING IN THE NEGATIVE ABOUT THE AVOIDANCE OF COLLUSION OR PLAGIARISM, IT IS USEFUL TO USE THE IDEA OF WORKING WITH ACADEMIC HONESTY. ACADEMIC HONESTY IS WHERE YOU UNDERSTAND ACADEMIC CONVENTIONS AND WORK WITHIN THEM. IN THIS item-by-item STUDY UNIT, WE PUT THE STRESS ON PLAGIARISM. THIS IS BECAUSE PLAGIARISM TAKES MORE EFFORT IN UNDERSTANDING THAN OTHER FORMS OF ACADEMIC MISCONDUCT.THIS IS NOT BECAUSE PLAGIARISM IS unavoidably MORE SERIOUS. THE FABRICATION OF DATA OR MAKING UP OF data-based RESULTS CAN BE furthest MORE SERIOUS AND HAVE FAR GREATER CONSEQUENCES THAN PLAGIARISM. SO THAT YOU CAN RETURN TO THIS MATERIAL EASILY ON FUTURE OCCASIONS, WE GATHER UP THESE IDEAS AS A SERIES OF DEFINITIONS AND PUT THEM INTO A GLOSSARY IN APPENDIX 1 OF THIS UNIT.Exercise 1 Thinking that you know about buccaneering does non mean that you can always decide what is by rights YOU HAVE NOW LOOKED AT THE EXPLANATIONS OF ACADEMIC HONESTY AND MISCONDUCT AND HAVE READ ABOUT THE JUSTIFICATION FOR course credit.IT IS TIME TO TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING. YOU WILL FIND, IN THE NEXT EXERCISE, THAT THINKING THAT YOU KNOW WHAT PLAGIARISM IS MAY NOT MEAN THAT YOU ACTUALLY KNOW WHAT IT IS WHEN IT COMES TO THE DISTINCTIONS OF RIGHT AND malign IN YOUR WORK OR THE WORK OF ANOTHER. SOME 6 OF THE EXAMPLES ARE PLAGIARISM, SOME ARE COLLUSION, SOME ARE CHEATING AND SOME ARE ALL RIGHT.REMEMBER THAT PLAGIARISM OCCURS WHEN THE WORK OF SOMEONE ELSE IS PRESENTED AS ONES OWN AND IS NOT ATTRIBUTED TO THE OTHER. ONE OF THE THREE ANSWERS GIVEN (A, B AND C) IS CLOSEST TO THE ANSWER. THE ANSWERS ARE AT THE END OF THE UNIT. 1.JOE HAS AN ESSAY TO PREPARE. HE meticulously READS BOOKS IN THE LIBRARY, BUT IS NOT SURE FROM WHICH TEXT THE IDEAS HAVE COME, AND WHICH IDEAS WERE HIS OWN. HE LISTS THE RANGE OF BOOKS HE THINKS HE USED IN HIS compose LIST. a) non plagiarism but he should realize remarkd the books in the text b) plagiarism he should have cited the books in the text c) Not a trouble he cited the books in the reference lis t 2.JAYNE DOES NOT KNOW HOW TO GET STARTED WITH AN ESSAY SHE IS IN HER FIRST SEMESTER. SHE DELAYS STARTING IT AND THEN PANICS AND HER FRIEND press outS HER HOW SHE CAN BUY AN ESSAY FROM A PAPER MILL WEBSITE.SHE BUYS ONE AND SUBMITS IT ( except THIS TIME SHE SAYS). a) This is not all right but it is cheating, not plagiarism b) Plagiarism and it is not all right c) Plagiarism but it is all right at this stage, but not later in the program 3. TERRY AND FRAN LIVE IN THE SAME HOUSE. THEY ARE ON THE SAME COURSE AND HENCE HAVE TO PUT IN THE SAME ASSIGNMENTS.FRAN HAS DIFFICULTIES WITH WRITING BUT SHE REALLY WANTS TO DO WELL IN HER DEGREE. TERRY WOULD LIKE TO GET TO KNOW FRAN BETTER AND SEES THIS AS A WAY OF INCREASING THEIR FRIENDSHIP. HE SUGGESTS THAT SINCE THE CLASS IS LARGE, THEY COULD PUT IN THE SAME ESSAY AND NO-ONEWOULD NOTICE AND IN THIS WAY HE HELPS OUT FRAN, WHO IS VERY GRATEFUL. a) Fran colluded. terry cloth did not. b) Terry colluded and Fran did not c) They colluded.4. MIKE USES THE LIBRARY TO FIND THE RELEVANT LITERATURE TO THE ESSAY THAT HE HAS TO WRITE, THEN, USING ONE OF THE ESSAY SITES, BUYS A SIMILAR ESSAY AND INTEGRATES INTO IT THE MATERIAL THAT HE HAS READ. a) It is certain that Mike plagiarized b) Mike did not plagiarise if he cited the sources and paraphrased appropriately c) Mike has plagiarised because he bought the bear witness 5. MALACHY FOUND THAT HER FRIEND, WHO HAD DONE THE MODULE LAST YEAR, HAD DONE THE SAME EXPERIMENT.HER FRIEND SUGGESTED THAT MALACHY COULD READ THROUGH 7 WHAT SHE HAD WRITTEN BUT SHE WARNED HER NOT TO COPY IT AS THAT WOULD BE COLLUSION. WITHOUT HER FRIEND KNOWING, MALACHY DID COPY PART OF IT AND PRESENTED IT AS HER OWN. a) Malachy plagiarised her friends work b) Malachy and her friend colluded c) Malachy and her friend plagiarised 6. DAMION FINDS THAT AN ESSAY THAT HE HAS DONE IN SCHOOL IS VERY SIMILAR TO ONE HE HAS TO WRITE AT UNIVERSITY.HE USES HIS SCHOOL ESSAY BUT UNFORTUNATELY HE DOES NOT HAVE THE fiberS PRO PERLY RECORDED. HE HAS NAMES CITED IN THE TEXT, BUT NOT DETAILS OF THE SOURCES. HE MAKES UP ONE OR TWO AND THINKS THATHIS TUTOR WILL PROBABLY NOT give cargon ABOUT THE REST. a) Because it was school work from a different place, it was all right b) It was all right because it had already been marked c) Damion plagiarised 7. SUE IS A LECTURER.SHE GIVES A LECTURE TO FIRST YEAR STUDENTS ON CELL biological science AND TALKS A LOT ABOUT CURRENT DEVELOPMENTS IN RESEARCH, BUT DOES NOT GIVE THE REFERENCES TO THE RESEARCH IN THE LECTURE OR ON HANDOUTS. a) Technically Sue plagiarised b) It is all right. If this had been written work, Sue should have cited correctly but it was oral c) It is all right not to cite if your are a teacher / lecturer in the process of teaching.8. TIM AND OONAGH ARE WORKING ON THE SAME ESSAY FOR THEOLOGY. OONAGH FINDS A GOOD WEBSITE THAT IS VERY HELPFUL. IT PROVIDES GOOD MATERIAL ON THE SUBJECT ON WHICH THEY ARE WRITING. SHE TELLS TIM ABOUT IT. THEY BOTH DOWNLOAD CHUNKS OF IT. OONAGH CUTS AND PASTES INTO HER ESSAY AND PUTS A REFERENCE TO THE SITE IN HER REFERENCE LIST. TIM PARAPHRASES FROM THE MATERIAL, jazzS IT IN THE TEXT AND IN HIS REFERENCE LIST. THE TUTOR WOULD NOT HAVE NOTICED THE SIMILAR MATERIAL BUT FOR THE FACT THAT THE TWO ESSAYS WERE ADJACENT TO EACH OTHER IN THE PILE. a) Tim and Oonagh colluded b) Tim and Oonagh plagiarised.c) Only one of them plagiarised 9. IN STATISTICS, GEMMA HAS A PROJECT THAT INVOLVES USE OF A QUESTIONNAIRE TO FIND OUT WHAT TELEVISION PROGRAMMES HER FRIENDS WATCH AT A PARTICULAR TIME IN THE EVENING. THIS WILL GENERATE DATA FOR STATISTICAL ANALYSIS. SHE IS ILL FOR A FEW DAYS AND IS RUNNING LATE. SHE MAKES UP SOME OF THE RESPONSES AND USES THEM. a) Gemma plagiarised 8 b) Gemma cheated c) Gemma colluded 10. kindle INTEGRATES INTO HIS ESSAY, A CHUNK OF HANDOUT MATERIAL FROM HIS LAST YEARS WORK. HE ALTERS SOME WORDS TO FIT BETTER AND SPLITS THE MATERIAL WITH TWO SECTIONS OF HIS OWN WRITING. a) Harry plagiarised .b) It is all right to quote from handout material without reference book c) It would have been all right if Harry had rewritten it more in his own words 11. JAMIE HAS AN ESSAY TO WRITE IN PHILOSOPHY. HE IS NOT VERY GOOD AT WRITING AND HAS DEVELOPED A STYLE WHEREBY HE COPIES DOWN APPROPRIATE QUOTATIONS (CITING THEM APPROPRIATELY) AND THEN PARAPHRASES THE CONTENT OF THE QUOTATION IN THE NEXT PARAGRAPH AS A mixture OF SUMMARY, STEERING THE MEANING TOWARDS ANOTHER QUOTATION AND SO ON. a) So long as Jamie paraphrases appropriately, he is not doing anything wrong b) Jamie is plagiarising c) Jamie should be using appropriate methods of referencing12. FOR SOPHIA, ENGLISH IS A warrant LANGUAGE. SHE WANTS TO SUCCEED AND GOES TO A FRIEND WHO SPEAKS BETTER ENGLISH. HER FRIEND GOES THROUGH HER building block ESSAY, CORRECTING THE LANGUAGE ALL THE WAY THROUGH. a) What Sophia is doing is understandable. It is all right b) What Sophia and her friend are doing is not all right. It is a form of collusion c) What Sophia is doing is not all right. It is cheating 13. BILLIE, ED AND JAKE LIVE ARE FOLLOWING THE SAME MODULE. THEY HAVE A PIECE OF WORK TO DO AND GET TOGETHER TO talk over IT. THEY TALK ABOUT THE CONTENT AND DECIDE EACH TO FOLLOW UP TWO REFERENCES AND THEN TO encounter AGAIN TO TALK ABOUT.WHAT THEY HAVE FOUND. THIS REDUCES THE strength OF class period THEY WILL HAVE TO DO. THEY MEET AGAIN, LISTEN TO EACH OTHERS DESCRIPTIONS AND WRITE NOTES AND THEN WRITE THE ESSAY SEPARATELY. THEY REFERENCE THE MATERIAL, WHETHER IT IS WHAT THEY HAVE READ OR WHAT THEY HAVE HEARD delimitD. a) Billie, Ed and Jake are colluding b) They are not doing anything wrong if co-operative study is acceptable to the tutor c) Billie, Ed and Jake are deceiving their tutor and therefore cheating 14. LUI FINDS SOME INFORMATION AT A WEBSITE THAT SAYS EXACTLY WHAT HE WANTS TO SAY. IT IS SIX LINES OF TEXT WHICH HE PUTS INTO QUOTATION MARKS.HE CUTS AND PASTES IT BUT BY MISTAKE LEAVES THE ORIGINAL FON T. HE CITES IT IN THE TEXT AND PUTS THE WEBSITE ADDRESS IN THE REFERENCE LIST WITH THE leave OF ACCESS. HIS TUTOR CALLS HIM IN 9 a) Lui cheated b) He plagiarised c) What Lui did is all right. 15. CHARLIE KNOWS A REALLY GOOD WEBSITE THAT WILL HELP HIM A GREAT DEAL IN THE PROJECT WORK THAT HIS HAS BEEN SET. HE IS WORKING IN A TEAM, BUT THE WORK THAT THE TEAM DOES MUST BE WRITTEN UP SEPARATELY. INITIALLY HE MENTIONS THE WEBSITE, BUT GIVES NO ADDRESS AND THEN REALISES THAT HE WOULD PREFER TO USE IT AS A REFERENCE FOR HIS INDIVIDUAL WORK.WHEN THE OTHERS ASK FOR DETAILS OF THE SITE, HE IS VAGUE AND THEN GIVES THE WRONG WEB ADDRESS TO THEM. a) Charlie is rightly not colluding with his team b) Charlie is not working co-operatively in his team c) Charlie is plagiarising and it is just as well he did not pass on the information 16. AARON IS WRITING UP A REPORT. HE FINDS A TEXT BOOK THAT IS NOT THE ONE USED IN CLASS AND USES IT TO GET MUCH OF THE INFORMATION THAT HE REQUIRES. HE REFERS TO T HE WORK OF JONDA (1998) THAT IS DESCRIBED AND REFERENCED IN THE TEXTBOOK. ARON CITES JONDA IN THE TEXT AND THEN REFERENCES IT TO THE TEXT BOOK IN HIS LIST OF REFERENCES.a) Aaron is behaving with academic honesty, his citations are fine b) Aaron is technically plariarising he should have cited the original source, not the textbook c) Aaron is colluding with the writer of the textbook 17. TOM FINDS A HELPFUL phrase IN A JOURNAL. HE PHOTOCOPIES IT AND COPIES FROM IT INTO HIS ESSAY, ALTERNATING SENTENCES OF THE ARTICLE WITH HIS OWN WORDS, AND NEVER COPYING MORE THAN A LINE WITHOUT ADDING HIS OWN WORDS OR ALTERING WORDS FROM THE TEXT. HE CITES THE ARTICLE IN HIS BIBLIOGRAPHY, BUT NOT IN THE TEXT BECAUSE HE DOES NOT FEEL THAT HE MAKES A SUFFICIENTLY SPECIFIC REFERENCE TO IT. a) Tom is cheating.b) Tom is plagiarising c) Tom is theme a good essay. He has properly cited the reference in his bibliography 18. AMY OMITS TO ACKNOWLEDGE THE MATERIAL THAT SHE HAS QUOTED. IT WAS A MISTAKE. a) Amy made a mistake and because she is a premier year that is all right b) Amy plagiarised. c) Amy did not plagiarise because not referencing was ignorant 10 Exercise 2 What reasons do students give for academic louse up? THINK OF FIVE EXCUSES THAT STUDENTS MIGHT MAKE FOR PLAGIARISING, COLLUDING OR CHEATING. SOME EXCUSES ARE UNDERSTANDABLE BUT THEY ARE AGAINST THE ACADEMIC CONVENTIONS THAT WE MAINTAIN WITHIN AN ACADEMIC COMMUNITY.THERE IS A LIST OF POSSIBLE RESPONSES AT THE END OF THE UNIT though YOU MAY HAVE THOUGH OF OTHERS. The further information and skills that you bespeak for academic honesty WE HAVE SAID THAT YOU NEED SOME INFORMATION, A SET OF SKILLS AND ASSOCIATED GOOD HABITS FOR YOUR ACADEMIC WORK. WE HAVE DESCRIBED ABOVE THE basic principle OF WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT ACADEMIC MISCONDUCT, PLAGIARISM AND COLLUSION BUT BEFORE WE LOOK AT THE SKILLS AND GOOD HABITS, THERE IS MORE TO SAY ABOUT WHY WE REFERENCE MATERIAL (REMEMBER REFERENCING, ACKNOWLEDGEMENT AND recogniti on MEAN THE SAME THING). Further reasons for referencing.WE SAID ABOVE THAT WHEN WE USE THE IDEA OF ANOTHER, WE REFERENCE IT AND INDICATE THE SOURCE OF IT. IN TERMS OF PLAGIARISM, THIS IS IN ORDER TO shew THAT IT IS AN IDEA THAT WAS GENERATED BY ANOTHER PERSON AND TO ACKNOWLEDGE THAT PERSON FOR THE IDEA. HOWEVER IT IS ALSO IMPORTANT TO REFERENCE AN IDEA IN ORDER TO SHOW ANOTHER PERSON HOW TO FIND THAT IDEA SHOULD S/HE WANT TO SEEK READ MORE OF IT. IN ACADEMIC WRITING, IN ORDER TO FURTHER YOUR OWN THINKING, IT IS USUAL TO FOLLOW UP REFERENCES THAT SOMEONE ELSE HAS GIVEN IN THEIR REFERENCE LIST. SEEKING AND FINDING INFORMATION BECOMES A KIND OF TRAIL.SO A SECOND REASON FOR REFERENCING IS TO ENABLE OTHERS TO FIND THE IDEAS FOR THEMSELVES IN ORDER TO SEEK MORE INFORMATION. THE THIRD REASON FOR REFERENCING IS SO THAT ANYONE READING YOUR WORK (SUCH AS A TUTOR) CAN SEE HOW YOUR THINKING HAS BEEN DEVELOPED. WHEN YOU DO ACADEMIC WRITING YOU WORK WITH YOUR OWN IDEAS AND THOSE OF OTHERS IN O RDER TO RESPOND TO THE TASK SET. IT IS NOT USUALLY JUST A MATTER OF WRITE AS MUCH AS YOU CAN ABOUT(SOMETHING) IN HIGHER EDUCATION, BUT THE QUESTION OR TASK WILL REQUIRE YOU TO master WHAT YOU KNOW TO EXPLAIN, TO COMPARE OR COMPARE AND CONTRAST AND SO ON.WHEN YOU USE THE IDEAS OF OTHERS, IT IS IMPORTANT FOR YOUR TUTOR TO BE ABLE TO SEE HOW MUCH YOU HAVE READ, WHAT YOU HAVE READ AND HOW YOU HAVE USED AND MANIPULATED THE IDEAS IN ORDER TO MEET THE TASK SET IN THE ASSIGNMENT.LOOKING AT A REFERENCE LIST FOR THIS PURPOSE IS A FORM OF EVALUATION 11 YOU MAY THINK THAT SUCH EVALUATION ONLY HAPPENS WHEN YOU ARE A STUDENT. THIS IS NOT THE CASE. ACADEMIC AND RESEARCH WRITING IN JOURNALS AND BOOKS IS ALSO SUBJECTED TO EVALUATION THIS TIME BY PEERS. SUCH RESEARCH WRITING USUALLY DEVELOPS NEW KNOWLEDGE. ONE OF THE WAYS IN WHICH THIS NEW KNOWLEDGE CAN BE.JUDGED BY THOSE WHO MIGHT USE IT, IS BY LOOKING AT THE LIST OF REFERENCES TO SEE WHAT KIND OF IDEAS HAVE FORMED THE BASIS TO THE NEW KNOWLEDGE. SOMETIMES THIS BASIS IS IN THE FORM OF WHAT WE WOULD CALL EVIDENCE. MANY ACADEMICS WILL TURN TO THE REFERENCE LIST AS SOON AS THEY ARE GIVEN SOMETHING TO READ IN ORDER TO SEE WHAT WORK THIS IS BASED ON.What do you not have to reference? NOT ALL IDEAS ARE CONSIDERED TO BELONG TO OTHERS. MOST OF WHAT WE KNOW IS COMMON KNOWLEDGE. THIS IS KNOWLEDGE THAT IS IN EVERYDAY USE, OR IS IN THE COMMON DOMAIN OR IT IS KNOWLEDGE ABOUT WHICH WE COULD SAY THAT MOST PEOPLE.AGREE. IT IS THE SORT OF KNOWLEDGE THAT IS FOUND IN REFERENCE BOOKS IN ENCYCLOPEDIAS OR DICTIONARIES. WE DO NOT NEED TO REFERENCE COMMON KNOWLEDGE, THOUGH USUALLY, IF YOU DO TAKE A DEFINITION FROM A DICTIONARY, YOU WILL CITE ITS SOURCE SO THAT OTHERS CAN FIND IT. WE DO NOT NEED TO REFERENCE IDEAS THAT ARE GENUINELY OUR OWN EITHER. IF THE IDEA IS ONE GENERATED BY YOU, BUT THAT YOU HAVE DESCRIBED IN YOUR OWN WORK ELSEWHERE, THEN IT IS GOOD PRACTICE TO REFERENCE IT TO THE FIRST OCCASION ON WHICH IT HAS BEEN USED (IE TO YOUR OWN NAM E). THIS MAY BE MAINLY SO THAT OTHERS CAN FIND IT FOR INFORMATION PURPOSES.THE RULES ABOUT CITATION OF LECTURE AND HANDOUT MATERIAL ARE MORE FUZZY TECHNICALLY YOU SHOULD SAY WHERE YOU HEARD ABOUT AN IDEA AS MUCH AS WHERE YOU READ ABOUT IT. HOWEVER, SOMETIMES THAT WOULD GET RIDICULOUS. IMAGINE HOW YOU WOULD MANAGE A QUESTION IN AN EXAM THAT ASKS YOU TO DESCRIBE SOMETHING THAT HAS BEEN DESCRIBED IN THE LECTURE.IT COULD BECOME VERY DIFFICULT. YOU NEED TO ASK YOUR LECTURERS AND TUTORS WHAT PRACTICE TO FOLLOW HERE. THEY MAY FEEL THAT YOU DO NOT NEED TO CITE LECTURES, BUT THAT YOU SHOULD CITE HANDOUT MATERIAL AND THEY MAY NOT ALL AGREE ON THE SAME RESPONSE.IN ALL OF THIS YOU MAY NOT ALWAYS BE SURE WHETHER OR NOT TO CITE. A RULE BY WHICH TO WORK IS IF IN DOUBT, CITE SO TO SUMMARISE THERE ARE AT LEAST THREE REASONS WHY WE REFERENCE MATERIAL -TO DEMONSTRATE THAT WE HAVE USED ANOTHERS IDEA -TO SHOW ANOTHER WHERE TO FIND THE SOURCE OF THE IDEAS USED -TO ALLOW ANOTHER TO prise THE QUALITY OF OUR REASONING.The skills that you need 12 IN TERMS OF SKILLS, YOU NEED TO BE ABLE TO -DIFFERENTIATE MATERIAL THAT NEEDS CITATION FROM THAT THAT DOES NOT NEED CITATION -USE IN-TEXT REFERENCING -WRITE AN APPROPRIATE REFERENCE LIST AND UNDERSTAND THE DIFFERENCE.BETWEEN THIS AND A BIBLIOGRAPHY -DEVELOP GOOD HABITS OF RECORD-KEEPING -WORK APPROPRIATELY WITH QUOTATIONS -MANAGE THE PRESENTATION OF OTHERS IDEAS IN WRITTEN WORK. (THE LIST IS MODIFIED FROM CARROLL, 2002)The ability to differentiate material that needs attribution from that that does not need attribution YOU NEED TO KNOW AND TO BE ABLE TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN WHAT DOES AND DOES NOT REQUIRE CITATION THE FOLLOWING DO NOT NEED TO BE CITED -COMMON KNOWLEDGE WHICH WE HAVE DEFINED AS THAT IN EVERYDAY USE, IN THE COMMON DOMAIN -FACTS THAT ARE GENERALLY AGREED, OR THAT ARE COMMON TO A VARIETY OF SOURCES-PERSONAL IDEAS, SUGGESTIONS ETC. THE FOLLOWING NEED TO BE CITED -DIRECT QUOTATIONS -REFERENCES TO OTHERS IDEAS express ORALLY OR ON PAPER OR WEB-BASED MATERIALS ETC -REFERENCES TO A REFERENCE ALREADY CITED BY ANOTHER IN A TEXT -PARAPHRASES, synopsis AND SUMMARIES OF OTHERS QUOTATIONS OR IDEAS -OTHERS STATISTICS, FIGURES, CHARTS, TABLES, PICTURES GRAPHS ETC-REFERENCES TO MATERIAL WITHIN AN EDITED TEXT. CLEARLY IT REQUIRES JUDGEMENT TO DECIDE WHAT DOES AND DOES NOT NEED TO BE CITED AND IF IN DOUBT, CITE Use of in-text referencing THIS IS A MATTER OF UNDERSTANDING HOW TO CITE IN TEXT AND HOW TO CONSTRUCT AREFERENCE LIST. THERE ARE DIFFERENT CONVENTIONS, AND SOMETIMES THERE ARE VARIABLE INTERPRETATIONS OF THE CONVENTION ADOPTED. SOME USE REFERENCE LISTS AT THE END OF THE TEXT, SOME WORK WITH FOOTNOTES OR ENDNOTES THAT ARE LINKED FROM THE TEXT BY NUMBER OR LETTER. 13 E. G. (1) OR (A).IN THESE CASES, THE DETAILS OF NAME, DATE AND SOURCE ARE EITHER AT THE BOTTOM OF THE PAGE OR LISTED BY NUMBER OR LETTER SEQUENCE AT THE END OF THE ARTICLE OR BOOK. REFERENCES MAY BE MIXED WITH NOTES. HARVARD IS A VERY COMMON tr unk IN HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS. E. G. IN THE HARVARD SYSTEM THE NAME AND DATE IS PUT IN THE TEXT (E. G.DIPPIDY, 1999) AND IN THE REFERENCE LIST AT THE END OF THE ARTICLE OR THE BOOK, THE REFERENCES ARE LISTED alphabetically WITH THE FURTHER DETAILS OF SOURCE.DIFFERENT DISCIPLINES TEND TO ADOPT DIFFERENT CONVENTIONS, AND ACADEMIC JOURNALS AND PUBLISHERS OFTEN DIFFER IN THE CONVENTIONS ADOPTED, SO YOU WILL COME ACROSS DIFFERENT STYLES IN YOUR READING. USUALLY IN UNDERGRADUATE STUDIES, YOU WILL BE TOLD TO WORK TO A PARTICULAR CONVENTION BUT YOU MAY NEED TO LEARN TO BE MORE FLEXIBLE. IT IS NOT WORTH REBELLING IN THIS MATTER.THERE ARE USUALLY HANDOUTS OR BOOKLETS THAT PROVIDE ILLUSTRATION OF THIS. IF YOU DO NOT KNOW WHAT SYSTEM OF REFERENCING TOUSE, ASK. MAKE SURE THAT WITHIN THE SYSTEM YOU USE, YOU KNOW HOW TO DEAL WITH THE FOLLOWING QUOTATIONS (SEE BELOW ALSO) DIRECT REFERENCES TO WRITTEN AND SPOKEN WORD REFERENCES CITED WITHIN ANOTHER TEXT TO WHICH YOU WANT TO REFER PARAPH RASES OR SUMMARIES OF OTHERS IDEAS THE CITATION OF STATISTICS AND FIGURATIVE MATERIAL REFERENCES WITHIN EDITED TEXTS, WEB-BASED MATERIALS, CD-ROMS. THERE MAY BE OTHER SOURCES THAT YOU WANT TO CITE. YOU DO NOT NEED TO KNOW ALL THIS BY HEART, BUT HAVE ACCESS TO A GOOD GUIDE TO REFERENCING AS YOU WORK AND MAKE SURE THAT IT USES THE APPROPRIATE STYLE.IF YOUR FEEL THAT YOUR GUIDE-BOOK ISNOT HELPFUL, LOOK AT STUDY SKILLS BOOKS OR LOOK ON THE WEB FOR THE SYSTEM YOU NEED. THE AMERICAN UNIVERSITIES OFTEN HAVE USEFUL MATERIAL The layout of a reference list and its distinction from a bibliography A REFERENCE LIST IS A LIST OF THE REFERENCES TO WHICH YOU HAVE REFERRED IN YOUR TEXT.A BIBLIOGRAPHY IS A REFERENCE LIST TO WHICH IS ADDED ANY EXTRA MATERIAL THAT MIGHT PROVIDE GENERAL OR FURTHER INFORMATION ABOUT THE TOPIC. IN ACADEMIC WORK, MOSTLY IT WILL BE REFERENCE LISTS WITH WHICH YOU WORK.
The Savage in aspect us entirely, when accepted situations are brought up the primitive human personality is let goed. Aspects of human personality in the world alert us to our potential to descend from uprightness and order to chaos, good to evil and elegance to blarery. The break down of civilization towards savagery dramatizes the struggle between the ruling element of society which embarrass law, morality, culture and the chaotic element of humanitys savage instincts which implicate anarchy, amorality, and a desire for power. Throughout the novel, skipper of the travel, Golding explicitly articulates that circumstances creates disintegration in moral value, innocence of human being and deteriorates the democratic system. Ralph the attracter is the symbols for morality and leadership, while their enemy Jack is the symbol for the desire for power, selfishness and amorality. Simon the disposition who was the only son who realizes concern is innate and the beast is wi thin the boys. overlord of the Flies reveals how people can descend into barbarism in an glory of chaos.The protagonist, Ralph, who personifies order, pragmatism, and everymans natural weakness, displays power and influence in the start out be attitudes is al nearly tempted into savagery in the end his use of the conch in the beginning of the book exhibits his characteristics and his civilized nature. He at first is presented as an militant individual, but also possesses an innate savage nature like everyone else and this is displayed when he partakes in the shovel ining of Simon. Dont you understand, Piggy? The things we did He may still be.Although Ralph commits get through, he is still non exclusively submerged into savagery since he is equal to realize what they have done, and this is clearly allegorized when he says he is afraid of them and wants to production home. These examples of Ralph show that when humans are not under the right circumstance, or away from civili zed world they are most likely to unleash their inner selves their evil side. They also show how Ralph descended from Civilization to Savagery. In maliciousness of Ralphs display of civility, wisdom and the confident view for mans fate, Jack on the other hand reveals the credence of mans fall into savagery.Jack, who personifies savagery, bloodlust, and the hunger for power, shows the unavoidable fate of man. When Jack painted his mask, he had liberatedfrom shame and self consciousness. This is one of the major turning signalizes for the change of Jacks character is his relevance of the mask. Jacks privacy behind the mask is a way for him to unleash his savage nature without feeling repentance. He also desires power from the beginning of the novel to the point when he declares himself the new leader. Jack persuades the boys to join him by using fear about the beast, and he does so until they all come to believe in its existence.After Jack diffuse this fear and belief in the boys m inds, all aspects of civilization, culture and dissolve quickly. Absurdity emphasizes Jacks bloodlust when he kills the position and when he attempts to kill Ralph also. Jack hunts not with the sole intention to develop meat, but he particularly enjoy exercising power everywhere living creatures while hunting. Though it is not accomplished, Ralphs potential murder also illustrates Jacks ridiculous and savage nature. Jack is completely descended from good to evil in an atmosphere of chaos. On the opposite side Simon is the only boy on the island who really accredits who the beast is.Simon was the only boy who did not descend into savagery. He is really the only one on the island who realizes that the fear is innate and that there is no beast. What I mean is perhaps its only us. Simons delirious confrontation with the Lord of the Flies confirms his theory of evil being instinctive to man and actually within all of us There isnt anyone to help you. Only me. And Im the beast fancy sentiment the Beast was something you could hunt and kill You knew didnt you? Im a part of you.These examples validates that savagery was of all time there in mankind but need a ripe circumstance to come out. So when Simon climbs the mountain and sees the parachutist and comes back to tell everyone that there is no beast, the inner beast of the boys made them kill Simon thinking that it is the beast. As Jack had implanted that there is a beast in real into their brains. Even after Simons death Jack and his race did not stop hunting and did not think about the murder they did the shadow before. The inner beast led to the loss of religion, and turned Jack and his tribe into complete savages.These are examples of the events that happened away from the civilized world. Simon the only boy to know the original beast mans innate evil. Jack turning completely savage and Ralph the leader who was often tempted by thesavagery of the others. All the above examples cerebrate that aspects of human nature in the world alter us to our opening night to descend from law and order to chaos, good to evil and civilization to savagery. Lord of the Flies showed that the evil residing within everyone could be unleashed. It proved the dark side of human nature could be really brutal and even the most innocent of us are vulnerable to it.BibliographyLord of the Flies, William Golding, The Berkley print Group, New York, 1954
Monday, February 25, 2019
Since my opp adeptnt didnt come apart any arguments, Ill first my arguments 1.Violence was always there. Its not a tonic invention. Since the beginning of time, there has been abandon. The first murder is mentioned in the bible. pr shamic anyy in the lead there was even electricity. 2.If the force play you adjoin on boob tube causes you to act violently, each and every one of us (since most of us entrance TV) would stomach been violent 3.Those who act violently argon raft which are naturally violent. The proof of that is that animals act violently too. animals do not instruct TV. They act violently since they are naturally violent creatures.see moresolutions to crime nation dont like to locution to themselves when we think about our faults so we turn to a inanimate Scapegoat. term Television has violent programs, it is our decision whether or not to act on what we see or what we allow our children to suss out. To blame tv is irresponsible, not taking responsibility to yourself. Virtually everyone in our society watches television, yet we dont return rampant violent crime rates. Violence existed foresighted forrader the television and violent crime rates have actually dropped everywhere time.That alone should invalidate any claim of a direct causal relationship. Unless you want to suggest that violence would be virtually non-existent if we had no entertainment, in which case youre being intentionally obtuse. What television show tribe have been watching for the last thousands of years? People have been cleaning people and committing crimes since the beginning of time. I ask an opponent to find one source linking TV to violence directly. Societies with TYs and societies without TVs have crime. Television was the scapegoat formed by the old thesis in front the antithesis could roll it over.There is no distinction between right and persecute anymore. I see kids crying in the grocery store all the time, and their parents give them candy. Fo r crying They associate bad behavior with amountting what they want. People who are used to getting what they want will become more aggressive. Teaching right from wrong early on will cooperate with the situation, but it first lies with the parenting. After that, the school system needs to collapse up on it. Television is entertainment. And its not the same with pictorial matter games where people can argue that video games might make softened kids think its ok to kill people. Most TV shows that have violence show what a bad thing it is, like the vice and pain that can come from crime.Television has less connection to violence than paintball does to writers block. It is the things the people watch on television that influences them. If they watch an action movie and it doesnt have much friction (the bad computed axial tomography being caught) the viewers might think I could do this and get an idea of violent actions. In conclusion,it all depends on the show or movie somebody watches and that type of person. Television cannot cause any actions. Yes, we are influenced by our media. But Ive watched plenty of action-packed gory movies about fights and violence and never had the urge. Part of it is parents, part of it is schooling and local environment. Violence has existed long before the media and although the scope of it has changed, the causes could never be attributed to media. I cant agree with my opponent that Television is the leading cause of violence in todays society.Since my opponent didnt give any arguments, Ill first my arguments 1. Violence was always there. Its not a new invention. Since the beginning of time, there has been violence. The first murder is mentioned in the bible. Much before there was even electricity. 2. If the violence you see on television causes you to act violently, each and every one of us (since most of us watch TV) would have been violent 3. Those who act violently are people which are naturally violent. The proof of th at is that animals act violently too. animals do not watch TV. They act violently since they are naturally violent creatures.
Running Head WHICH NUT Which Nut has oftentimes Energy? Aidan J. Flood Christ the King more people eat pea shabus such(prenominal) as explorers the iodins that explored the colonies. They lived off of the types of nuts big in the colonies. (The flavour and Times of a Peanut) Many people ate nuts such as walnuts, peanuts, and almonds. All of the nuts pack a ton of capacity inside. The testing was on which nut had more skill. It is necessary to test or essay with the power of a nut, so people come how much energy each nut really holds, so they deal which one to buy.In order to understand a nuts energy, it is necessary to chicane the following terms and formulas. You may need to understand energy. Energy is a usable oestrus or power, powers something or someone. You may need to know temperature, a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of matter, expressed in terms of units or degrees designated on a standard scale. (http//www. thefreedictionary . com) BTU center British thermal units, it means the quantity of rage required to raise the temperature of one pound of water from 60 degrees Fahrenheit(postnominal) to 61 degrees Fahrenheit.I am using 125 ml, half a cup of water, which is equal 4. 17 ounces. The formula that I have for energy is, Energy= mass (125ml or half a cup, 4. 17 ounces) x increased temp Mass of the nut x 1000 (nut as in walnut or peanut) One is Celsius Celsius is the type of temperature measurement in almost e very(prenominal) other country except America. It was named after an astronomer he created the scale of temperature. The other is Fahrenheit Fahrenheit is mostly utilise in the U. S. It is a scale temperature which water freezes at 32 degrees Fahrenheit, and boils at 212 degrees Fahrenheit.Now for the things that are being tested, A Peanut is a nonaged oval seed of South American plant, mostly roasted, salted, and eaten as a snack. Also called a one seeded plant, grown on life-sized farms. A nut is a hard shelled, one seeded takings like an acorn or hazel nut. You will also need to know what a graph is, a graph is a diagram that exhibits a relationship between different sets of numbers and items. (http//www. thefreedictionary. com) Many plants and crops are grown organically and inorganically so that must be explained too.Organic means that the plants or crops are grown naturally without pesticides and any harmful chemicals. (http//www. thefreedictionary. com) This real doesnt affect the peanut because it is hard shelled and no pests can lose in. Inorganic means not made with any organic materials at all and is protected with man made items that are not always helpful to the environment. The plants are grown with pesticides and chemicals. Morgan D. Nagatani conducted the same type of experimentation in 2002. She thought that the walnut would have the most energy and it did.She stuck the needle into the nut and burned it with a lighter, but she used a small bucketful i nstead of a juice can. The walnut did show the highest BTU, with cashew in second (I did not test the cashew), and the almond in 3rd. These results caused me to be more interested in for walnut . It had the highest in my experiment. This also helped me explain BTU, British Thermal Units, and it did affect my experiment. There are some things were detect in the experiment that I learned. The walnut had the most energy out of numerous different nuts.Also people wanted to know what Joules were and I build that they are also another measurement of energy and heat. Something that I noticed was that when I was testing the bottom of the can would turn black, so I needed to know if the soot on the bottom would effect the heat that it gave off, and it did so I had to clean the can after every trial. Many people expected the walnut because of its mass, and it was because it was grown inorganic plus very large so it can burn longer. In the past experiment the walnut also won the prize for nu t with most energy. It relates to my experiment because it tells me which nut to expect to win.
Sunday, February 24, 2019
English Debate 2011-2012 Should Lord of the Flies Be out(p) From Chisago Lakes High School? Argument 1 Peer Pressure By Elizabeth Gornik Were sitting here talking, in Mr. Scharnbergs first moment English class at Chisago Lakes High School, about how this classic disk Lord of the Flies by William Golding affects our everyday lives. Half of the room believes its a life lesson and should be continued in our education course of instruction and the other half believes its sending a horrible message to our company and should be forever banned from our school.I believe that its an educational guard and should continue to be taught its a great read and has changed my expectation on things in life. For the other half of you I understand where you guys argon coming from, this allow has sexual references, its violent and makes fun of disabled multitude but you have to look past that and see the deep nitty-gritty in the gory paragraphs. In our lives we face many challenges one of the titanic issues is look pressure. We all face it in high school, drugs, sex, erupties, alcohol, skipping school, etc. The vocabulary definition of peer pressure is influence from members of ones peer group.Lord of the Flies is a perfect of example peer pressure it shows how everyone cracks under pressure. Choices they make are determined by the manipulation and domination of their much powerful friends. The littluns are faced with pressure because they dont precisely know whats going on, they whole lives theyve been supported by their families and didnt have to worry about seeing tomorrows daylight. outright they have to depend on boys twice their age because everyone else is and they dont know how to take care of themselves. Another situation is when ll the boys first met and everyone was devising fun of hoggish and calling him Fatty, Ralph decided to be part of the fun and giggles and tell everyone Piggys secret nickname to belief part of the crowd. Later on in the book t he more Ralph realizes that Piggy was his one, true friend. Towards the end of the book Samneric were pressured into joining Jacks kinsfolk by threatening them. They end up joining to save their lives. This book clearly shows that how theyre acting is influenced by the things that they have gone through, the milieu is what influenced them, not a book.Think about it, Jack became obsessed with hunting because thats all he could do to entertain himself. When teens and children even adults are world-weary they tend to experiment things such as drugs, sex, alcohol. If youre not retentiveness yourself busy and hanging around the wrong people, eventually you get influenced to do things you will regret doing in the future. Also, it shows that the consequences of our mistakes, it does not encourage us to do the same. If you actually thought deep about the text and not on the dot surface through the offensive situations, you just might see what I see, a life lesson that each and every on e of us pick up to learn.
The Theme of commodification in the Iliad is highly consequential in the Iliad. mark was against the motif of making the as a commodity. Homers Iliad Is an excellent example of the suppressive map of wo workforce at this time. Women were treated merely as property and were used for producing square within the household. They are depicted as being inferior to men both physically and intellectually.The Iliad began with an argument mingled with Achilles and Agamemnon over Brises, who was considered a war prizeThey brought back the spoils and dMded them equally among the warriors. Agamemnons prize was Chryseis, the miss of a riest of the god Apollo. Achilles take was a maiden named Brisels. Both women were taken against their will. unfortunately for Agamemnon, Chryseis father begged for his daughter to be released and offered huge amounts of treasures as ransom.In return. Agamemnon took Brisels, Achilles prize, and that results a big disagreement between Agamemnon and Achilles. The example of Chrysels and Brisels was a critical reminder of what will become of the women of troy should the Greeks succeed in taking Troy. Homer was successful in criticizing the social practices through this epic. Homer tried to shade a light on the mistreatment of women. He believes that any relationship between man and women out of the espousals is wrong.The relation between male and female in this epic Is a relation of maters and slave or a lover and a mistress. Homer was against the sub-human classification of women. Throughout the Iliad, women play a modest but important role that embodies their relative significance and the Impact they have on the affairs that take place. Their role is depicted wisely by homer in order to show the maltreatment of women. Homer was against using women as corporeal objects and the Iliad represent a strong protest against this commodification of women. ton
Saturday, February 23, 2019
NAME ASHVIN JAYABALAN I. C. NUMBER 970202-13-5163 AGE 15 YEARS OLD name BLOCK 47, 0316, TAMAN UNGKU TUN AMINAH, 81300, SKUDAI, JOHOR BAHRU TELEPHONE NUMBER 0168099798/0168508226 E-MAIL talking to emailprotected COM NAME OF instruct SMK TAMAN TUN AMINAH BE CAREFUL WHAT YOU WISH FOR Be Careful What You Wish For. This is the phrases or topic that I am passing game to write an essay approximately it. First but not least I am red to explain the definition of the word wish. Wish means a whole step or to express a strong desire or expect for something that probably testament not happen to us.We mustiness not mobilize that all of our dreams or wish go a behavior come confessedly if at that place is nothing we do and rely on other throng. On the contrary, we must also beware of what we wish for beca intent sometimes it impart come accepted and some we doesnt want it. For example, we wish to become a favourite and well-known person. Once we become famous, we leave behind f eel that something is missing which is savor and happiness from your family or your cheatd ones that is far a vogue from your place.From on that point we effected that what we wish is actually nothing and just to get close to the fans. So, we will regret and go main persist where we belong Everyone has their own wish and dream. close to of them wish that they could win over a jackpot million of ringgits or gambling in a casino. However, does this wish mean a pack for you or just to have fun. Actually my wish is to become a millionaire. Yes, although my dream is too big but I will answer oneself people in need such as old peoples, orphans and legion(predicate) more.I will befriend them by building a ho design for them to squelch and as a shelter. This will makes them more comfortable to stay. I will also build a small school for urban poverty, infant abandonment and abused nipper. They will have good education when they grows up and contribute to the country. Besides, I will distribute foods and drinks to the homeless in the pathway of Johor. This is because Ive been blessed so I want to bless others. It understructure be as simple as giving a grasp of rice or tinned food to someone out thither who hungry.Every time I give I am answering some other persons prayer. As one says a great land is not measured by the numbers of millionaires and billionaires, but the absence of the poor. thither is a story that I want to tell around this topic. It is around a boy named Dexter. He lives with his parents in a small resolution at Perak. He is good in writing English essays. So, he went to America to continue his studies in essay writing. Then, he came dorsum to his hometown in Perak and he wishes that he could become a great apologueist.His wish came avowedly and he was as happy as larks that he could become a touristy novelist. Since then he had written many another(prenominal)(prenominal) good novels particularly one of his books entitled T HE BEST FRIEND IVE EVER HAD. This novel has received an award from the World Books Awards in London. Because of his novel, he had many fans and people whole around Asia. Now, he had become famous and he forgets to the highest degree his family and also his loved ones. One day, he met with an accident on his way back home from work.He was rushed to the nearest hospital by the tending of the people on the scene. Once his family heard the news, they rushed to the hospital. They felt assuage that Dexter had only minor bruises on his body and had a tough leg. Once Dexter awake, he was shock to see his family visit him. He regret that he had forget intimately his family and promises that he would go back to his happy and harmony family again. there is also a song that deal to this topic entitled HOME by Chris Daughtry.This song says that we must be careful of what we wish for because some of our wish jakes come consecutive up and some we doesnt want. He says again that he is n ot raceway from his family but he deems that the places and faces are getting old. Besides, he have in minds that love presumption by his fans is totally different with families love. In conclusion, we must know that all wish we ask for will have serious consequences later. So, we must think wisely before making any decisions because its no use to crying over a split milk. (733 words)Laughter Is the Best medicateNAME ASHVIN JAYABALAN I. C. NUMBER 970202-13-5163 AGE 15 YEARS OLD ADDRESS BLOCK 47, 0316, TAMAN UNGKU TUN AMINAH, 81300, SKUDAI, JOHOR BAHRU TELEPHONE NUMBER 0168099798/0168508226 E-MAIL ADDRESS emailprotected COM NAME OF schoolhouse SMK TAMAN TUN AMINAH BE CAREFUL WHAT YOU WISH FOR Be Careful What You Wish For. This is the phrases or topic that I am going to write an essay virtually it. First but not least I am going to explain the definition of the word wish. Wish means a belief or to express a strong desire or foretaste for something that probably will not happ en to us.We must not think that all of our dreams or wish will come true if thither is nothing we do and rely on other people. On the contrary, we must also beware of what we wish for because sometimes it will come true and some we doesnt want it. For example, we wish to become a popular and well-known person. Once we become famous, we will feel that something is missing which is love and happiness from your family or your loved ones that is far away from your place.From there we established that what we wish is actually nothing and just to get close to the fans. So, we will regret and go back where we belong Everyone has their own wish and dream. several(prenominal) of them wish that they could win over a jackpot million of ringgits or gambling in a casino. However, does this wish mean a attraction for you or just to have fun. Actually my wish is to become a millionaire. Yes, although my dream is too big but I will help people in need such as old peoples, orphans and many more.I will help them by building a house for them to stay and as a shelter. This will makes them more comfortable to stay. I will also build a small school for urban poverty, child abandonment and abused child. They will have good education when they grows up and contribute to the country. Besides, I will distribute foods and drinks to the homeless in the passage of Johor. This is because Ive been blessed so I want to bless others. It can be as simple as giving a handgrip of rice or tinned food to someone out there who hungry.Every time I give I am answering another persons prayer. As one says a great race is not measured by the numbers of millionaires and billionaires, but the absence of the poor. There is a story that I want to tell about this topic. It is about a boy named Dexter. He lives with his parents in a small crossroads at Perak. He is good in writing English essays. So, he went to America to continue his studies in essay writing. Then, he came back to his hometown in Pera k and he wishes that he could become a great novelist.His wish came true and he was as happy as larks that he could become a popular novelist. Since then he had written many good novels oddly one of his books entitled THE BEST FRIEND IVE EVER HAD. This novel has received an award from the World Books Awards in London. Because of his novel, he had many fans and people whole around Asia. Now, he had become famous and he forgets about his family and also his loved ones. One day, he met with an accident on his way back home from work.He was rushed to the nearest hospital by the help of the people on the scene. Once his family heard the news, they rushed to the hospital. They felt improve that Dexter had only minor bruises on his body and had a low-spirited leg. Once Dexter awake, he was shock to see his family visit him. He regret that he had forget about his family and promises that he would go back to his happy and harmony family again. There is also a song that associate to this topic entitled HOME by Chris Daughtry.This song says that we must be careful of what we wish for because some of our wish can come true and some we doesnt want. He says again that he is not footrace from his family but he thinks that the places and faces are getting old. Besides, he thinks that love presumptuousness by his fans is totally different with families love. In conclusion, we must know that all(prenominal) wish we ask for will have serious consequences later. So, we must think wisely before making any decisions because its no use to crying over a split milk. (733 words)
Can cross-fileing sustain a mans way of intent? Can reading save an entire culture? Sherman Alexie, an Indian creative writer writes an essay of which he acquaints us of his means in learning how to read, that is, through a daemon comic book. The essay was written in an alternating first individual and trey psyche style of relative. The first person way of telling was for his reflection. Those sentences that were written in the first person were Alexies own sentiments. The third person style was for his people.Probably it was meant as an insult since people who unremarkably speak in a third person style be often deemed unintelligent since they cannot fol petty(a) the rules of language. As the essays retells the experience of the author of how he learned how to read, there is one topic of which he focused, and that is how reading (and how it is committed to direction) made a different imp motion in his way of life which can be very significant or relevant to the novel worl d today whose kids be taking reading for granted.Reading and education Reading is a cognitive process of connecting meaning to a collection of words, sentences, and letters. Not many can take the time to discipline themselves into disposition and having reading as a habit but over the years reading has become a standard of calling a person or treating a person literate. It has become a mean to march on ones status. However, based on Sherman Alexies essay, knowing how to read downgrades the status of an Indian person. Indians are treated as the Native Americans.They werent treated kindly as the natives of the new world as tarradiddle tells. They were often treated as the group of people who struggles with the advancement of life. large number who are not social. If Indians were compared to animals, the Indians were the wild animals. And according to Alexies essay, the ones who stays wild, are the ones whos status are high in the Indian world. In the modern world today, educat ion has been treated as one of the study concerns of nations.More and more, the value and the quality of education have gone low and people in advance nations and culture are taking it for granted. On the other hand, Alexie and his dad are examples of people who defy the norms of their own society. nation who counteracts their culture thus forming a kind a heroic act or in times a crime for/to their own people. I am trying to save our lives. (Alexie 2). Alexie expressed his sentiment of saving their lives in two styles. One was personal and the other was towards the children he was teaching.While he defied the accustomed treatment of Indians to non-Indian education (i. e. how he had man arguments with his classmates to shut up his mouth towards the questions of the non-Indian instructor), he was hopeful that his people might change their spot towards education (the reason why he ought to be a teacher among his people). In some ways, education defines how a person hopes for his worth. It is more than the status, it besides creating an opportunity for ones self and knowing how to use education in helping one feel fulfilled.
Friday, February 22, 2019
It is a fact that society is hired maning with legion(predicate) problems at this time, which includes violence, poverty, and wellness issues. More and more community who engage in violent acts are being shown in the news. It does non even look how young or old these people are because age is not a factor in committing violence. Homelessness and unemployment are withal two of the approximately serious issues that the public wealthy person to deal with everyday of their lives.There is also the growing concern over health and medicine because having good health and long life are important to everyone. These problems underside affect peoples mental well-being, especially if they experience it firsthand and are not able to receive professional attention to help them recover and deal with the situation. If their mental health has proved to be unstable and affecting their behavior, they efficacy cause harm to other people as well.Psychologists can help find solutions by conduct ing more studies so that they can research just around the issues and how people react to them better. They can also find solutions by acquiring into the field and talking to people about what their concerns are and how they might be of help. Receiving recommendations from average people will greatly help the professionals handle real-life situations more better. Going into the field would also allow psychologists to learn more about certain issues and situations, which would help them become better in what they do.Not only if will they be able to help their patients, but they also have the opportunity to grow personally and professionally. Indeed, there are numerous psychological issues that society faces everyday, which is why it is very comforting to know that psychologists are doing what they can to help the average person and families to handle these stressful situations. Psychologists and other health professionals should conduct further studies involving psychological iss ues for the benefit of society.
To order an hold, please click this sleeper www. thepensters. com/gimatria. Thank you. close disputable attempts argon emotionally-packed, hot issues that are step up and debatable in disposition, thus, sparking conflicts. They tolerate disputable topics of recurring interests. Simply put, whatever adjudicate contents where real contentions are typically presented for long periods fix up into particular forms of controversy. Hence, they are generally make doed highly polemical pieces of experiment. The former for this is that people have alter ideas and opinions regarding topics that are contentious, debatable or disputable.Controversial essays modify people to raise strong arguments in favor of or against any issues. This results from concepts or ideas that have explicit viewpoints, which comprise any specific contexts. Most people are effective in writing this type of essay in the first place because they follow these base ideas underlying any controversial es say topics, as follows First, you will not find any comprehensive guidelines of typography controversial essay topics, plainly only opinionated views. Subjective topics and observations in crafting articles generally generate controversies provided primarily entirely relative.They ensure branch if a particular article is a personal essay, opinion piece, intelligence informationworthiness report, persuasive article or thingamajig. Any demeanor, you should usually come up with well-timed content articles in furnishing details for this type of essay. Second, identify your subject case and be familiar with the argument. retain centered on the theme. Have judgement of your subject matter by doing just close(a) research to preserve open content. Just take into key to keep yourself unbiased, except if it is your opinion or own piece.Needless to say, if you would like to write a contentious topic, pick one(a) out that will fitly elicit your own ground around the given iss ue. Even so, be ready to be disputed and/or riged. Third, be sensitive to your readers. stay on this in mind when writing receipt whom you are addressing or rump audience. Keep the readers interest and concentrate on the end results. Ask yourself some of these questions What is your objective as an essayist? Is your essay a controversial article, news items, or persuasive in nature?Provide only correct factual observations even when you are arduous to be creative explaining some theories. Readers can be offended or even annoyed with a contentious topic yet, this does not pull in injurious expressions or anxious practice in the slightest form. Remember, as a writer, youve the mature to contradict or denounce unfair remarks. As such, offensive content should never be tolerated. On the other hand, your readers can consider forgoing your piece, talk about it, or disregard it altogether. That could be their decision. Nevertheless, no writer should be abused.Excessive damaging o pinions and hateful bashing need to be dealt with judiciously. destructive activities are unacceptable and no readers or author owns a right to damage or defame another person. In summary, if you choose to wee-wee controversial essay topics, yours whitethorn result in serious debates requiring supporting evidences. Really, you need profoundly, sensitive understanding of proper argumentation to deal mainly with opinionated essays, which are plain and entirely subjective any way you view them. Eilvu Gimatria analyse demand To order an article, please click this tie in www. thepensters. com/gimatria. Thank you.Controversial Essay High School Students and Beginners GuideTo order an article, please click this link www. thepensters. com/gimatria. Thank you. Most controversial essays are emotionally-packed, hot issues that are intensifying and debatable in nature, thus, sparking conflicts. They contain disputable topics of recurring interests. Simply put, any essay contents where s trong contentions are typically presented for long periods build up into particular forms of controversy. Hence, they are generally considered highly polemical pieces of essay. The reason for this is that people have varied ideas and opinions regarding topics that are contentious, debatable or disputable.Controversial essays polarize people to raise powerful arguments in favor of or against any issues. This results from concepts or ideas that have distinct viewpoints, which comprise any specific contexts. Most people are good in writing this type of essay mainly because they follow these basic ideas underlying any controversial essay topics, as follows First, you will not find any comprehensive guidelines of composing controversial essay topics, but only opinionated views. Subjective topics and observations in crafting articles generally generate controversies but primarily entirely relative.They ensure first if a particular article is a personal essay, opinion piece, news report, p ersuasive article or thingamajig. Anyway, you should usually come up with timely content articles in furnishing details for this type of essay. Second, identify your subject theme and be familiar with the argument. Remain centered on the theme. Have understanding of your subject matter by doing some research to write impartial content. Just take into account to keep yourself unbiased, except if it is your opinion or own piece.Needless to say, if you would like to write a contentious topic, pick one out that will appropriately elicit your own understanding about the given issue. Even so, be ready to be disputed and/or corrected. Third, be sensitive to your readers. Keep this in mind when writing Know whom you are addressing or target audience. Keep the readers interest and concentrate on the end results. Ask yourself some of these questions What is your objective as an essayist? Is your essay a controversial article, news items, or persuasive in nature?Provide only correct factual ob servations even when you are trying to be creative explaining some theories. Readers can be offended or even annoyed with a contentious topic yet, this does not constitute injurious expressions or offensive practice in the slightest form. Remember, as a writer, youve the right to contradict or denounce unfair remarks. As such, obnoxious content should never be tolerated. On the other hand, your readers can consider forgoing your piece, talk about it, or disregard it altogether. That could be their decision. Nevertheless, no writer should be abused.Excessive prejudicial opinions and hateful bashing need to be dealt with judiciously. Injurious activities are unacceptable and no readers or author owns a right to damage or harm another person. In summary, if you choose to create controversial essay topics, yours may result in serious debates requiring supporting evidences. Really, you need profoundly, sensitive understanding of proper argumentation to deal mainly with opinionated essays , which are simply and entirely subjective any way you view them. Eilvu Gimatria Essay Guide To order an article, please click this link www. thepensters. com/gimatria. Thank you.
Thursday, February 21, 2019
This poetry is a Patriarchal sonnet that consists of twain s burnzas- the first one(a) is an octet in which the thesis is explained and the second one is a sestet in which a solution for the thesis is explained. The poesy is about the children in rich families that argon over protected and lead luxurious and libertine lives. The comfort that they get isnt as good for them as it seems but plays a part in making them ignorant and making them unprep ard to impudence whatever calamities that may befall them. The poem which has a sober and instructive tone is written in second person narrative so that the message has a greater impact on the endorser and the reader feels like hes been addressed directly.The poem begins with the children of wealth being addressed in their warm and comfy homes directly as in the first telephone wire of the poem which is also the title of the poem as in every sonnet. The children are derriereed in a warm place on cushioned windows which tells us th at they are provided with so much comfort that even off their window seated are cushioned .from the beginning we see that the poet exaggerates their riches. They are watching the snow falling thats falling continuously outside sit down from their windows as in the line set in the window seat to watch the volleying snow guarded invisibly. There are devil images formed here- one is of the comfort qualified and warm room in which the children are seated and the second image is of the cold and chilly and virulent spend outside.The only barrier between the two is the assimilate window referred to as an invisible guard because you cant see it. It doesnt let any painful sensation reach the children as in the line by the clear forked pane through which no touch untimely penetrates. The children dont know what wintertime is because they fill never felt it, just seen it and heard it. Winter is not something which is known just by seeing .. it has to be felt. In the same modal value , they the children have never experienced the big(p)ships that some people face in this world.They have just heard about them. The pun pane describes the window and tells us that no pain can reach the children. If the window would have been single paned the children would still be able to feel the cold channelize that would seep in. thus we see that winter and cold symbolize harsh realities of the outside world. The glass does indeed keep the children a path and well protected from the harsh winter but it also keeps them away from the pains of winter and makes them ignorant which can be painful for them. Their citadel keeps them away from tincture and knowledge which is essential for the survival of human beings in the world as in the line your citadel is safe from feeling and from knowledge similarly.In the second stanza the poet says that the only way these kids can get unloosen of their ignorance is if they are exposed to the harsh realities in the world from which they are unbroken away. In the line go down go out to simple wrong, the poet says that these children should be made to go out and research the earthly problems out and solve them.The children of wealth are visualized as equitable and round so the poet tells them to shed their weight by working hard as in the line waste you two round limbs , tan your skin overly white. The poet also says that they should tan their skin which is too white that it looks pale and gives a feeling of something thats decaying by exposing it to the sun. the word too makes it negative. So, the poet is urging them in using a tone with urgency to seek the outside world and face its difficulties so that they may be able to shed their ignorance.The second stanza shows the glass as not only a barrier that provides protection but also a dangerous end that is being identified with ignorance as in the line the glass of comfort, ignorance seems knockout.In the next lines the poet warns them that of a possibility o f a fire first in their houses as in the line today and yet perhaps this very night youll wake to horrors wrecking fire your home is wire within for this in every room . The word yet in this line gives an effective warning sound. And if something like that does happen they wont be able to protect themselves and how ever will they escape? Their only way will be out of the window which unfortunately wont give way too easily because its double paned. In the same way they wont be able to survive in the outside world because of their ignorance which is symbolized by glass.The poem ends with a very clear warning to the children of wealth making it clear that unless they dont seek and expose themselves to reality and experience the difficulties of this world they are release to be vulnerable to this worlds dangers.
Case Study Drivers of Industry Financial expression Executive Summary KR+H is a manufactory social club in cabinet industry and it had devised a unique operating dodging of producing high quality use cabinets at a low exist. Because the enthronizations forget prune damages and increase the working efficiency in manufacturing process. And the depth psychology forget show that adding enthronisation is valuable and profitable. Based on KR+Hs past fiscal performance and the cost of investment, KR+H would need additional support to fund the proposed capital investment.The natural funding could be truly difficult for KR+H ground on it had a deficit in 1992. And internal financing whitethorn in like manner slow down the investments because KR+H has to retain its profit. as well as rising the price is not a very good filling in a long perspective. Because it could retard their growth and therefore did not represent a feasible path to a long-term profitability. So we suggest that KR+H should finance the proposed capital by relying on external financing from a bank or an outside investor. ContextKR+H is a manufactory troupe that designs,fabricates and installs high quality, uniquely designed cabinetry. forthwith it had devised a unique operating strategy of producing high quality custom cabinets at a low cost. KR+H believes that the use of computer-controlled equipment allowed the fast to significantly reduce their labor cost and other production cost while change magnitude the efficiency of the manufacturing process. In sound out to support the tuition if their innovative operating system, KR+H need to clearly assign the scope and speed of growth for their business.However, the partners do not have internal funds to finance the investment and their access to external capital markets is limited. thereof KR+H needs a better operating and pecuniary strategy to managing rapidly growth and its capital. I think the article repeat advantage in a downturn is very helpful. Many companies neglect to see the opportunities hidden in economic downturns. In order to fasten on advantage of opportunities, KR+H first need to do a thorough but rapid assessment of its own vulnerabilities and then excise decisively to minimize them. David and Daniel, 2009) KR+H could approach their problem by using some of those steps introduced in this article such as Monitor and maximize its cash position 1. Evaluating the capital position In the cash flow statement Exhibit 6, the net decrease in cash by $15,298 in 1991 and $46,955 in 1992. In order to chance cash requirement during 1992,KR+H gets a personal loan around $35,000 and the bank overdraft to cover its deficit about $14,000,which shows us that KR+H are short of cash during the past yrs and it gets worse. The total sweetening of the new investment will be crime syndicate Cost exact in Capital $300,000 $100,000(developing in 2 years) Software $25,000 $30,000 (maintain & update per year) trade $40,000 Based on KR+Hs past financial performance and the cost of investment, KR+H would need additional financing to fund the proposed capital investment for sure. 2. Adding investment is valuable and profitable I think the proposed projects are profitable investments and it will add values. Because the investments will reduce costs and increase the working efficiency in manufacturing process Category Number Increase production capacity 50% Labor cost saving per year $170,000 Another fact is that on a pro forma basis, KR+Hs cost of goods sold in 1990, the year before merged is approximately 60% of gross revenue. In 1991,the percentage is increase to 67% and in 1992 the year after the merger the percentage bloom to almost 75%. It shows us that some unanticipated cost increasing rapidly while the revenue is rising. If KR+H could adopting the new investment it would make its production more efficiently and the technique may in like manner save some cost of goods. In addition, the cabinet industry go through a decline in efficiency in 1992. Firm coat Sales per work Compare to 1991 Large $120,000 gain 9% middling $84,000 decline 11% Small $80,000 off 2% KR+H could gain a long-term rapid growth in sales by first adopting the new technique and the improvements in production efficiencies will give KR+H more advantages in sales. There is no doubt that the investment will increase the operating leverage and also increase risk. In Exhibit 9, with investments KR+H will per year saving $207,900. Therefore, adding the investment is very profitable. And also rising the price is not a very good option in a long-term perspective. Because it could retard their growth and therefore did not represent a viable path to a long-term profitability. I think KR+H finance the proposed capital by relying on external financing.Because the internal financing could be very difficult for KR+H based on it had a deficit that was covered with a personal lo an to company about $35,000 by a partner and a bank overdraft $14,000 in 1992. And internal financing may also slow down the investments because KR+H has to retain its profit. The investors wouldnt want a low bear just because the firm wants to invest. Thus, external funding will be a better choice. Ratios In 1992 and 1993, exhibit 4 Year Return on Sales Return on Equity 1992 2. 1% 21% 1993 8. 3% 98% Besides this, KR+H also is profitable in 1992 and assume that it will have 10% growth rate. Meanwhile, with the investments could save KR+H about $209,900 each year.Those profitable data in its financial performance will help KR+H to get a loan from a bank or other outside investors. outcome KR+H has its new investments developed and they focus on diminution by continuing to increase the level of automation in the process. And this investment is valuable and profitable. Based on KR+H had performed not very well in their cash flow in the past 3 years. The company also troubled wit h limited access to the capital market. Therefore, it is unavoidable for KR+H to get external financing in order to maintain its revenue and get a rapid growth. References Robert C. Higgins(2012), Analysis for financial management David Rhodes and Daniel Stelter(2009), Seize advantage in a downturn
Wednesday, February 20, 2019
Punjab is the interior(a) of Mata Kaushalia and Mata Sita, the self effacing wives and m differents who would not th fightt a commitment make by their husbands to a rival, even when that would hold back their own life an unmitigated agony. The grapheme of Punjabi women as commandos in the battle-fields is no less glorious. Sada Kaur and rani Sahib Kaur is remembered as wiz of the dandyest generals of her beat even in the Afghan records those require success full moony defended their kingdom against the attacks of the Marathas, Afghans and European adventurers and chased them away from the battlefield. This reads the women of Punjab had an cost share in the re-building of India. Through Kuka, Nirankari, Arya Samaj, Dev Samaj, Congress and Akali movements, the women of Punjab has played an equally commendable role in the license struggle against the Britishers.This article is an essay to put a groundless on the hardships of the Punjabi women that how they have stood should er to shoulder with their men in war and in peace and how they have crossed their go from dark to dawn. They gave up the pleasures of a princely home to fight for the independence of India., acquired the prominent places in the Indian administration, some became the first Health Minister of India and some of them became commanders of the Rani Jhansi Regiment of the Indian National Army, and gave her life while fighting for Indias independence in Assam. Now they have grown from their hard multiplication and today the enlighten women paved the way for them to adopt new professions curiously in the field of law, medicine and teaching and existed as a rising Woman with New Spirit__________Punjabi Woman A Momentum move from Dark to DawnMiss. RituAssistant professor in Laws ,KCL Institutes of Laws, Jalandhar.Women have peachy talent, but no genius for they always remain subjective, said Schopenhauer in World as Will and Idea. Greek philosophers thought a charr is an unfinished man left standing at a lower step in the scale of development. The male is by temper superior and female inferior. The sensation is the ruler and the different ruled. Woman is worn down of will and, therefore incapable of independence of character and position. Such prejudices prevail even today. On the threshold of a new millennium the location of woman is still to be elevated to that of man. The position and situation of women alter from time to time in the different societies. The early Vedic times of the ancient fulfilment were free from some(prenominal) of the affectionate wrongs that harmed the Indian corporation in the of ulterior eras. At that time women were assigned high status in the partnership.But during the post-vedic period, women deep in thought(p) that status which she formerly enjoyed in fraternity. She became a subject of protection and treated as a second separate citizen. In the great(p) Indian mythology of Mahabharat the heroes of the legend, t he Pandavas, lost their wife Draupadi in a card game She was offered after their other valuables, equivalent gold and land, had been lost in the gambling game. Against this backdrop it is all-important(a) that Sikhism, one of the knowledge bases youngest religions, accorded women complete compare with men in all spheres of life.Guru Nanak Dev Ji (1469-1539), render of the Sikh religion made Sikhism conform to enlightened, simple, practical, progressive and humane grands slump from its inception. Guru Nanak Dev Ji understood and appreciated the unifying role of women in society and worked for their emancipation. Sikh scriptures categorically state that man and woman together make society a composite and well balanced whole and should not be viewed as a threat to one another. Women as multifarious personalities had a significant role to play in society.Then wherefore call her evil from whom are great men born,And without woman none could existThe eternal Lord is the only one , O NanakWho depends not on woman? (Guru Granth Sahib, P. 473)Such thinking was revolutionary and far ahead of the times. Bibi Nanaki, the aged sister of Guru Nanak, was a perfect example. The Guru was especially close to her and regarded her as his fervor and mentor. Nanaki had implicit credit in her brothers ideology and promote him in his lifes mission and became the first person to be initiated into Sikhism by Guru Nanak. Guru Nanaks ideals were given a practical shape and coalesced by Guru Amar Das (1479 1574), the third Sikh Guru. He was a great champion of womens rights who based his concepts on complete gender equality and specified norms for ameliorating the status of women in chivalrous India. Guru Amar Das halt contemptuous references to women as mere child-bearing machines.Blessed is the woman who creates life, he wrote in the Granth Sahib. During his pontifications, he made sure women were provided opportunities to lead more purposeful lives which enabled them t o actively participate in social and religious affairs. For the propagation of the organized religions ideology, he created twenty two administrative units called manjis or parishes. Of these quatern were headed by women which were unheard of in those times. In status these four women were equal to modern Bishops because each enjoyed full economic and decision-making powers within her parish or manji. During the medieval age, condition of women was again degrading. Muslim attacks made people to protect their ladies and compelled them to close up the weaker sex behind the four walls of the houses. purdah system, polygamy, child marriage and other evils started creeping into the society which affected the condition of women. But still during that time many socio-religious movements like Sufism and Bhakti movement tried to emancipate women. The Sikh Gurus and their great ladies became social reformers, acknowledged the importance of woman and voiced their opinion against the prejudi ces of society like child marriage, sati system, purdah, enforced widowhood and others. With the creation of Khalsa on the Baisakhi day of 1699 by Guru Gobind Singh ji, Sikhism underwent a major interpretation. The Khalsa was created to instill a fresh spirit of courageousness and confidence among the Gurus followers. Here again women were an integral part of the celebrations. At the time of victorious Amrit a man was given the style Singh (lion) and women added Kaur (princess) to their names. The postfix Kaur is of immense significance as a woman was recognised as an individual who need not take her husbands name after marriage. She could use the denomination Kaur after her name from birth to death.The word Kaur is derived from the word kanwar the son of a king. This empowers Sikh women, Apart from equality in socio-religious affairs, could participate in political matters as well, including leading an army into battle. This gave women in Sikhism a sense of enormous self-conf idence. Guru Gobind Singhs widow Mata Sundari played a key role in Sikh history for forty important classs. She issued Hukamnamas (decrees) to the Khalsa giving directions at a critical juncture and successfully manoeuver the destiny of the Sikh against both the Afghan invaders and various claimants to the Guruship. Rani Sada Kaur, the run mother-in-law of Maharaja Ranjit Singh is aptly described as a first woman commander-in-chief. She became a young widow when her husband was killed in battle. She used this crisis to transform herself into a woman-warrior, donning a high turban and battlefield garb with full weaponry.She commanded numerous battles and eventually fit(p) the foundation for the Sikh empire. Rani Jinda, matrimonial to Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the mother of Dalip Singh, the ruler of Lahore kingdom, was the brain behind the rising of 1848-49 against the British authorities. She was known for her intelligence and intrepid spirit, Jindan was one of the few persons who was intensely disliked and besides feared by the British. She was the first female freedom fighter in the struggle to oust the British from India. After the annexation of Punjab by the Britishers in 1849, various changes occurred in the modern era of the Punjab. It was the period where on the one hand a tuff struggle for freedom was on the rash and on the other a concerted effort was withal made to form a new woman. The Board of Administration was formed by the Britishers and they started working for their vested interests which in return had some positive impact on the society of Punjab.Some socio-religious reform movements like Singh Sabha, Namdhari, Arya Samaj, Kukas and others began to develop in Punjab during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century and played a significant role in the history of Punjab. They raised voice for women emancipation. They all fought against social evils like sati system, female infanticide, child marriage, purdah system, widowhood, polyg amy, prejudices against female breeding and many more. These social reformers opened various schools, colleges, gurukuls for girls in the different parts of Punjab. more or less of the writings of the missionaries, colonial administrators or social reformers were the narrative of womens muted but progressive march towards modernity following a period of stagnation. These accounts gave importance to womens biological differences specification of their nature, the role played by them and categorized them into single strata irrespective of their class, caste and hierarchies of their age.A concerted effort was made by the vernacular press especially magazines, journals and newspapers through their editorials, articles, essays and others to locomote and encourage women who were having a segregated existence in the society. Female education was given importance and stress was laid on the domestic dwelling work for girls in the early decades of 1900s. A new woman-educated, free from t he trammel of purdah, accomplished in domestic skills, devoted to the husband and family, an intelligent companion, an ideal mother, producer and nurturer of a strong masculine race and custodian of tradition, was portrayed. replete and higher classes wanted to educate their girls as the education became eligibility for their marriages, on the other hand, the poor and middle class people needed bread winners for their family.The journey from education to occupation by the girls in Punjab was crossed. The educational experiments of the government and reformers produced a new woman with interests that were beyond the household. The main objectives of their associations was to make society evil free and gave special attention to the female upliftment. The Chief Khalsa Diwan of Amritsar was realised in 1902 to promote the spiritual, intellectual, moral, social, educational and economic welfare of the people and the girls of orphans asylum were sent to different schools in Punjab for getting education. The Central Vidwa Ashram for the welfare of widows was as well established where they were imparted technical and vocational education. The Sikh Educational Conferences were also conducted p.a. by the Diwan from 1908. From 1908 to 1947, thirty three sessions of the conference were held and all the issues transaction with female education were regularly discussed.The royal women of the different princely states like Nabha, Patiala, Jind and others were the patrons of the conference. These conferences made women of Punjab to come forward and they began to communicate with their counterparts outside their families and local communities. These later became a platform for the women to participate in public life and the freedom struggle for India. The entry of Mahatma Gandhi and the Jallianawala Bagh tragedy of 1919 made women of Punjab to directly participate in the non-cooperation Movement of 1920-22. They held the meetings, led the processions, boycotted impertinen t goods, adopted the slogan of swadeshi and indulged in the picketing of foreign cloth shops and liquor shops. Sarla Devi Chaudhrani, Parvati Devi of Kamalia, Puran Devi, Gauran Devi, Mrs. Duni Chand, Kumari Lajjavati, Lado RaniZutzhi were the few names who participated in the movement of 1920-22.The club of 1920-22 was a sort of training programme for the future Satyagraha programmes of 1930-34 and 1940-42.Womens association in Civil Disobedience Movement of 1930-32 differed quantitatively and qualitatively from their intimacy in the early 1920s and won them a place in history. As the Dandi March was initiated by Gandhi in 1930, women of Punjab inaugurated the movement by taking out processions, prabhat pheris and holding meetings. Regular processions were led by women like in Lahore the life and soul of the movement was Lado Rani Zutshi, Parvati Devi,Kartar Kaur, Atma Devi and many others. As the women were fighting(a) in all these activities of the campaign, the government al so started arresting these women participants. In the year 1932,that is, in the mid of the movement, the number of women convictions in Punjab was gradually increasing and on average ten women were convicted every month. Thus, it was the womens organizations and networks, developed between 1925 and 1930, that laid the ground work for their positive reaction to Gandhis call.The public elaborateness of the women gained momentum. The every(prenominal) India Womens Conference which was first organized in 1927 at Poona. The women of Punjab also participated in the twenty sessions of the conference from 1927-47. The participation was so important that one of the sessions of the conference was held at Lahore in 1931and Rajkumari Amrit Kaur belonging to the royal family of Kapurthala was a very active participant from Punjab in the conference. She was one of Gandhis proximate lieutenants and took a leading part in protest marches which were subjected to unpitying lathi charges in Quit In dia Movement of 1942. The conference was also presided once by a Muslim lady of Punjab Lady Abdul Qadir of Lahore in 1933. Sarla Devi Chaudharani also represented Punjab and initiated various resolutions during the period of freedom movement in India. The women from Punjab also participated in some of the sessions of Indian National Congress and went to the different venues of the sessions.Women of other provinces also came to Punjab to enlighten their fellow sisters like Sarojini Naidu, Kasturba Gandhi, Muthu lakshmi Reddi and others. The active women were even appoint as parliamentary secretaries and were elective to the Punjab Legislative Council. Shrimati Lekhawati Jain (the first elected lady member of the Punjab Legislative Council), Mrs. Jahahara Shah Nawaz, Mrs. Duni Chand,Shrimati Raghbir Kaur were the few other elected members. The nearly important consequence of this public participation was that it cleared the way for the women of Punjab to show presence in the natio nalist movement of India. Before the last build of the struggle 1940-47, many of the women in Punjab were members and some were even leaders of the bookman associations (Lado Rani Zutshi in Lahore), and other political movements.Today, the 21st century uphold to witness Punjabi women in the forefront in different spheres, especially in Indias independence movement. Some other outstanding women freedom fighters of Punjab were Gulab Kaur, Kishan Kaur, Amar Kaur, Harnam Kaur, Dilip Kaur and Kartar Kaur. contemporaneous Punjabi women are making a mark all over the world as academicians, administrators, entrepreneurs, politicians, doctors, poets and painters.An important aspect of the rights conferred on women in the Sikh faith was that they did not have to fight for their rightful place in Sikh society they were given their due voluntarily because of the enlightened ideals of the Gurus. In this way, the Punjabi women have proved that they are made of sterner stuff. They toiled, they fought, and they sacrificed. They believed in what they did. Indian history has enter the astonishing vitality and matchless deeds of the daring daughters of India especially the Punjab, who continue to serve the country in fields almost unknown in the past.REFERENCES* Geraldine Forbes, Women in Colonial India Essays on Politics, Medicine and Historiography, New Delhi, Chronicle Books, 2005, * Aparna Basu, The intention of Women in the Indian Struggle for Freedom in B.R. Nanda (ed), Indian Women From Purdah to Modernity * Manju Verma, The Role of Women in the Freedom Movement in Punjab. * The running(a) Women and Popular Movements in Bengal, Calcutta, K.P. Bagehi and Co. P.Custers, 1987. * Traditional Symbols and New Roles, The Womens Movement in India, in M.S.A. Rao (ed.), brotherlyMovements in India, Vol.II, Delhi, Manohar, and 1982, From Purdah to Politics the Social Feminism of the All India Womens Organizations, in Hanna Papanek and Gail Minault, 1982, Separate Worlds, Del hi, Chanakya Publications. * Chanana, K., Social Change or Social Reform The Education of Women in Pre-Independence India, in Chanana (ed.). * Jaspreet Singh, Style of the Lion The Sikhs and A Glimpse of theSikh.