Saturday, August 31, 2019

Nike Legal

Nike has experienced many political and legal issues throughout its lifetime. From claims the company has used and continues to use sweatshops, to ties with terrorism, Nike has had a lot to overcome. These issues Nike has faced has shaped their current marketing strategies and led them to become one of the most recognizable brands in the world. The largest political issue Nike has faced was with regards to the sweatshop and child labor scandal.Nike began manufacturing in South Korea and Taiwan in the early 1970s (Carty, 2002). They claimed that the lower production cost from cheaper labor was an irresistible draw. When the economies in those countries began to grow, Nike’s labor cost increased substantially, forcing them to look in other geographical areas to maintain their low cost of production. Nike moved manufacturing into Indonesia, China, and Vietnam (Carty, 2002). In the 1990s, claims of Nike’s inhuman treatment of workers surfaced.Nike was faced with allegations of breaking numerous labor laws, including the forcing of child labor, long hours without overtime, unsafe working conditions, and low wages. Many children worked for over sixteen hours a day for less than one dollar a day (Thottam, 2005). Nike’s initial response to the criticism came from director Todd Mckean, who stated that Nike did not own the companies who broke these labor laws (Thottam, 2005). Mckean was restating the fact that Nike contracted its manufacturing out to several companies, and did not directly oversee the process.Nike responded to these allegations by creating their first Code of Conduct called SHAPE. Shape stands for safety, health, attitude, people, and environment (Bushra, 2012). The code was created with intentions of adhering to standards such as fire safety, minimum wage requirements, and overtime limits, costing Nike approximately ten million dollars a year. Nike is also working with agencies such as the Fair Labor Association, which randomly insp ects any manufacturing company that produces Nike products(Bushra, 2012).Nike ranks the manufacturing plants on a scale of one through one hundred, according to various safety and working condition criteria. If the plant does not score a passing grade, Nike will end contracts with that plant, encouraging all the manufacturing plants that they work with to improve their working conditions (Bushra, 2012). Nike has had to face new laws that affect how they run their marketing campaigns. In the United Kingdom, Nike paid Wayne Rooney to advertise different products through his twitter account. Rooney weeted â€Å"My resolution – to start the year as a champion, and finish it as a champion †¦ #makeitcount gonike. me/makeitcount. † (Furness, 2012). Rooney’s tweet was required to be taken down from twitter by the Advertising Standards Counsel because the tweet did not meet the advertising requirements in the United Kingdom. According to the Advertising Standards Co unsel, the tweet had to identify that the tweet was associated with Nike communications by including a hashtag (Furness, 2012). Nike has also had political forces affect their public image.An Al-Qaeda terrorist group has adapted the slogan just do it to encourage violence. The new terrorism slogan has been name the Nike Order (Dunn, 2010) by British officials, which affects the public view of Nike. Nike has yet to respond to this new trend. Furness, Hannah. Wayne Rooney Remprimanded for Advertising Nike on Twiiter. 20 Jun. 2012. 2 Feb. 2013 . Dunn, Tom Newton. Terrorists Steal Nike Slogan. 4 Nov. 010. 1 Feb. 2013 . Thottam, Jyoti (7 October 2005). â€Å"A New Push Against Sweatshops†. TIME. Retrieved 26 March 2011 3 Carty, Victoria (2002). â€Å"Technology and the Counter-hegemonic Movements: the Case of Nike Corruption†. Social Movement Studies   Bushra, Tobah. How Nike Turned Disclosure into an Opportunity. 23 Jan, 2012. 1 Feb, 2013

Friday, August 30, 2019


Introduction Robotics has revolutionized the way industries operate, the way items are built, and the way society lives. Robotics is a fairly new technological advance that has made lives easier, and has provided a breakthrough for many operations and businesses. In a way, robotics is the future for businesses as well as the future of mankind. Like any other type of technology, robotics can be used in various industries, has advantages and disadvantages, and has a long history of how it came about.There are many aspects of robotics to be considered which include educational fields that one can choose, and the types of applications and industries robotics is found in. Safety is an important concept and part of robotics, especially because of its complexity. Being well educated in the field of robotics can play an important role on safety as well. This field can greatly reduce the workload and can increase the productivity in many companies, no matter how big or small. Robotics is the future, and embracing it will help in the future success of businesses.History of Robotics The actual word robot was made popular by an author in his 1921 play. This author claims that his brother was the inventor of the word, which comes from the Czech word â€Å"robota† meaning servitude. Robots were first used in factories such as industrial companies, where these would fix machines in order to handle manufacturing tasks that facilitated the production and assisted humans in their everyday tasks. Robots such as industrial robots that used artificial intelligence have actually been around since the 60’s.After the 1950’s computers along with robotics started to increase in popularity as well as complexity and numbers as technology also began to advance. In 1961, the first industrial robot was built to work on the General Motors assembly line, and this machine was conceived in 1954 by George Devol and was called Unimate. The name was given because the robot was manufactured by a company called Unimation. Unimate is to this day remembered as the first industrial robot ever built. After the first robot was built, many others started to come around, and in 1971 the first icroprocessor called 4004 was created by Ted Hoff at Intel. Many other creations began to follow such as programming language called Prolog, which became the basic language in the field of artificial intelligence, then came the first industrial robot with six electromechanic axes, then the silver arm, capable of replicating human hands. Currently, robots are used to monitor outer space. In April of 2001, the Canadarm2, which was attached to the space station, was launched into orbit. This robot was a much larger and more capable version of a previously used arm.Another break though in the robotics field made it to stores in 2002. The Roomba, a robotic vacuum cleaner manufactured by the company iRobot became quite popular during this time. The most recent robotic creation was the Robonaut 2, which is the latest generation of astronaut helpers that was launched into the space station on the STS-133 mission. This is the first humanoid robot in space. Some of its features included showing engineers how robots actually behave in space so they could work on upgrades and possible advances that would assist spacewalkers perform their scientific work.Google also came out with robotic vehicles, called Google driveless cars, which became famous in 2010. These robotic vehicles had drivers behind the wheels in case of an emergency, and drove to various places while taking pictures of their surroundings. Unimate Google Images4004 Google Images Canadarm2 Google ImagesThe Roomba Google Images Robonaut 2 – Google ImagesGoogle’s Driveless Car Google Images Advantages Robotics as any other industry and profession has advantages and disadvantages. Business decisions usually come with pros and cons especially when it coms to automating the rocess of production by using industrial robots. Companies need to first take time and consider all the facts before deciding to add robots to their departments, especially when these can bring advantages and disadvantages in the process. Some of the advantages that robots can bring to companies is the fact that the quality of work is excellent. Industrial robots have the capabilities to improve the quality of production. Some of the applications performed by robots are more precise than those performed by humans and are more consistent in their quality as well. This igh level of quality and consistency is harder to obtain in any other way besides using robots. In production of products by using robots the speed of their outputs has a dramatic impact in the overall production of products. Robots are built to work at constant speeds without needing sleep, vacations, breaks, and they even produce more than any human worker. Safety is one of the other advantages found in the use of robots. Robots increase the safety in the workplace as these can perform in dangerous environments and hazardous settings, giving the opportunity to umans to move the supervisory roles and away from hazardous environments. Robots also have the advantage of proving savings for companies. Being able to provide a safe workplace, robots can bring financial savings to companies as these will incur less worker compensation fees, no healthcare or insurance payments, and robots also perform at higher levels with a fraction of the effort. Disadvantages Robots also have disadvantages that need to be considered. Investing in a robot can be costly, especially if the business owner has a budget to work with. The cost of automating the roduction by using robots needs to be calculated into the business’ financial budget. The maintenance of the robot should also be calculated to avoid future surprises or bills. When it comes to robots, programming and interaction are required, as with new employees hiring and trai ning is also a requirement. This programming and interaction can become costly depending on the time invested. Robots can also provide a safe work setting for employees, as they take the place of them in hazardous settings, but they can also bring safety problems. Their only presence can be the cause of hazard for workers as well. Advantages |Disadvantages | |You can send them to very dangerous places |You need to get people trained to fix them if anything wrong | | |happens | |You can make them do you're job for you |Need a very intelligent crew | |They are more accurate than humans Eg no shaking when in a |They can ruin peoples lives Eg Take their job away from them | |very important surgery, puts every screw in fabricating a car| | |etc. | |Can do jobs 24/7 |They are very expensive to make | |Can guard without being tired just keep doing the same thing |You need the right materials to make them, that could be very| |24/7 |rare | |No need of nutrients |If you make a very amazi ng robot with amazing quality and it | | |brakes, it might be very hard to fix | |You can program them to make them do exactly what you want |They can be very hard to program | |them to do | | |They can not harm you unless they are programmed to |They can reproduce but it could cost money for the materials | |Can work with out doubts Eg when you think â€Å"what do i do |They can reproduce but it could cost money for the materials | |now†? | |They can lift very heavy things |You need highly trained people to make them | | |They can not recharge themselves | (â€Å"Advantages and disadvantages,† ). Industries Robotics falls into three major industries including manufacturing, service and defense. These industries will also generate jobs such as technical engineering, software, testing and many others. Because robotics is such a complex field, and no one person can manage knowing every aspect of it, this is known to be a collaborative field. Basically, robotics requi res a lot of team work and discipline to achieve all the required tasks in providing a successful product. This is a great advantage as segments of robotics seem to be growing fast. One industry in particular as been the service industry, which has seen tremendous growth over the last decade. Robots are being used more frequently in manufacturing, where these help create jobs. Robots also help control quality of products and maintain that quality high. Currently, the highest percentage of robotics is seen in the United States, where about 60 percent of the service industry and 80 percent of the military industry are located. The largest manufacturers of robotics, however, are still in Germany and Japan. Service Industry Google ImagesMilitary Industry Google Images Robotics and Education Currently the robotics industry is growing rapidly, and if people do not already own a robot, they will very soon.This industry is growing in various ways such as size and sales, as well as creating growth around itself. It has been found in recent research that the robotics industry is expected to generate over one million new jobs over the next five years. One great way to get involved in the field of robotics is to sign up for the First Robotics Competition. This is a good first step, especially for those under 18 years of age. By getting involved in the competition, you can learn every aspect of robotics, the different product life cycles, and also gain experience in the field. College is another great way to learn about robotics, as many institutions offer classes and degrees in robotics.Robotics is a very complex field, and it as multiple industries that it’s a part of. The robotics industry can offer employment to a wide range of people, even if their specialties do not include a degree in this field. Many people who have science degrees, physics, or even electronics degrees are employed in the field of robotics. Software is a part of robots that is not usually vi sible, yet engineers that design these software are very important and there are many jobs available for them. The future will be driven by software designers, and those who specialize in computer science. If one is passionate about robotics, it is recommended to take a course in a robotics elated field to learn more, and to find the different paths you can take in this field. By doing so, one can meet other people interested in robotics and share ideas and interests. Some universities do not offer specific robotics courses, but you can learn about robotics by taking engineering classes as well. Some of the subjects that will allow you to learn more about robotics include computer science, mechanical engineering, and electronics engineering. It is always a good idea to spend time taking small courses to see if this field is the right career path, instead of diving into a three to four year degree without being sure it’s the right choice. Careers in Robotics | |Robot Service Engineer | |As a service engineer you would be responsible for installing, maintaining and fixing any faults with the robots. | |Qualifications: Often offered as a modern apprenticeship (Requiring GCSEs), a BTEC in electronics or an A-level in an engineering related | |subject. | |Product Consultant / Demonstrator | |If you are confident in presenting in front of a group then this job may be perfect for you. You would be required to learn everything | |about a companies and demonstrate it to a group of potential customers. | |Qualifications: This would depend on the specific company. If presenting is the primary role, an A-level in English would be beneficial. | | |Research Assistant | |If you are passionate about developing new robot technology and can demonstrate good analytical and practical skills you may be ideal for | |research. | |Qualifications: A-level, Higher education certificate, Degree or Masters in an engineering related subject. | Safety Working with robots will bec ome more and more common, whether at home or in the workplace. With new developments in the robotics field, one of the problems that engineers are facing is safety. Safety is a concern that every industry has with their employees, and is now becoming a concern with robotics as well. One of the solutions that have arise regarding safety has been to prevent the user from coming into contact with the robot by using physical barriers to do so.While studying robot-human interaction, which is known as HRI, it has been found that removing these barriers will allow people to and robots to work together and cooperate in order to perform the required tasks. Robot systems that are able to perform HRI tasks will be considered as being safety-critical complex systems because of their size, behavior, functionality, and can even cause damage to their surroundings and to their operators. One of the objective when it comes to designing robots is to have the engineers work to achieve safety. Even if engineers design a safe robot, it an be hard to prove its safety by merely testing it. The Future of RoboticsOne aspect in which robotics has revolutionized the way we live has been the invention of the mobil phone. This invention changed the communication industry when it was introduced in the early 90’s. This simple device has sparked demand for wireless communication as well as portability in other devices. Knowing how robotics has changed the way we communicate, it can be predicted that robotics will have a great impact on the future as way especially in the areas of battery life and weight, artificial intelligence, and swarm robotics. Battery life is essential for mobil devices, and it can be seen as it is the largest part of the device, and the heaviest. In the uture, power sources will be reduced to allow a smaller device with longer battery life. The second area in which robotics will impact is artificial intelligence, or AI. So far many advances have been made in thi s field, but there is still much to be done. Currently, AI systems have been created to generate logic routines at basic levels. In the future, AI software may be able to think or even act like humans. Swarm robotics is the last important area, and it refers to controlling multiple cooperating robots. This basically means that multiple robots will be able to do various tasks and at the same time be cooperating directly or indirectly to complete that task.This will help in employee a large amount of robots to complete one major task. Mobil Devices Google Images Artificial Intelligence Google Images Swarm Robotics Google Images Robots vs. Humans Robots are known to have skills that cannot be matched by humans. In some cases, robots perform one function, but in others robots can take on various tasks that will take the place of several employees. One good example is how electric shavers used to be assembled in the old days, by using hundreds of factory workers who perform this task by using only their hands. Now, these same tasks are performed by robot hands. These robots can perform the work at igher speeds than humans can, three sifts a day, 365 days a year, and without vacation, breaks, or sick days. The future of business is in robotics. Companies are now wanting to work with the robotics systems that electronics giants such as Apple are currently using. Because robots are coming down in price, and at the same time growing in sophistication, it is believed that jobs will be lost. The success of robotics has jeopardized many jobs as so many tasks can be performed at a fraction of the time, higher quality, and at a fraction of the price. Even robot manufacturers have stated that in several applications robots are already more cost-effective than people. One ay to show this was seen in a company where a $250,000 robot replaced two machine operators, making $50,000 per year, and over the 15-year life of the system, the machines yielded $3. 5 million in labor and productivity savings. Robots are known for being a faster assembly line, and this is one of the main reasons they have been replacing so many factory workers, and giving companies more of a competitive advantage and savings. Conclusion Robotics has become a great part of society’s lives, and has even become essential in developing specialized tasks that need the constancy and preciseness of robots. Handling certain tasks could take excess amount of money and time that if performed by humans alone could ruin ompanies as they would not be competitive in the market. Robots provide us with the assistance needed to get the job done faster, and in a more productive way. This is the future and being a part of it makes it definitely better. References Wikipedia. (n. d. ). History of robots. Retrieved from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/History_of_robots Robotics careers and education. (n. d. ). Retrieved from http://www. razorrobotics. com/careers-and-education/ Future of robotics. ( n. d. ). Retrieved from http://www. razorrobotics. com/future-of-robotics/ Robot safety. (n. d. ). Retrieved from http://www. razorrobotics. com/safety/ PLATT , J. R. (n. d. ).The real steel: Robotics careers ready to boom. Retrieved from http://www. todaysengineer. org/2012/Feb/career-focus. asp Advantages and disadvantages of robotics. (n. d. ). Retrieved from http:// 14wo. qataracademy. wikispaces. net/Advantages and disadvantages of robotics Advantages and disadvantages of automating with industrial robots. (n. d. ). Retrieved from http://www. robots. com/blog/viewing/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-automating-with- industrial-robots MARKOFF, J. (n. d. ). Skilled work, without the worker. Retrieved from http://www. nytimes. com/ 2012/08/19/business/new-wave-of-adept-robots-is-changing-global-industry. html? pagewanted=all=0

Thursday, August 29, 2019

INFLUENCES ON DIET AND HEALTH Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

INFLUENCES ON DIET AND HEALTH - Assignment Example Kimberly Rogers has mental problems and is currently admitted at a mental health facility. Psychological conditions such as depression are known to affect individuals in many ways. This has obvious negative implications on an individual’s health and wellbeing and may exacerbate conditions such as diabetes and hypertension. The child prefers to eat fatty and sugary foods. This can affect his quality of life because she is consuming energy dense foods that are nutrient deficient. This will result in health problems such as obesity and other chronic conditions later in life. Alex prefers to eat processed meat products which have been associated with various health conditions. Processed foods have dangerous levels of compounds that are not considered to be healthy. Furthermore, such foods are associated with an increased risk of diabetes and heart ailments. The patient in the case prefers snacks and processed foods. These foods are energy dense and are low in nutritional content. This will definitely have a negative impact on a individual’s health and wellbeing through a compromised immune system, and conditions such as obesity. Mr Holmes can be described as a striver. He is conscious of his image, has limited income and is used to debts. This kind of lifestyle may prevent him from accessing everything that essential for a good health and wellbeing. Alex’s is described as a believer, he is slow to change his habits, bargains when shopping, and spends considerable time watching television. This lifestyle might affect his wealth and wellbeing as it is largely sedentary and may result in conditions such as obesity, and diabetes. Kimberly’s lifestyle is described as an actualizer, and enjoys good things in life. Such a life style might impact positively on the her health and wellbeing as her tendency to look for good things might

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Marketing Service of Rooftop Movies Research Paper

Marketing Service of Rooftop Movies - Research Paper Example It is observed that the cinema industry has amassed enormous growth in recent times due to the emergence of 3D experience along with the latest technology based digital effects. In this context, the revenues are expected to increase considerably from the cinema industry of Australia in the upcoming years (Westberg 2011). External Environment Rooftop Movies, which is located in Perth city of Western Australia, has ultimately transformed into a premier destination for those people who live and work in the city. The patrons or the customers belonging to the Perth city consider Rooftop Movies as one of their refreshment destinations and was voted by Wallpaper Magazine as the third coolest leisure experience in the world (City of Melbourne 2012). There are many companies that enthusiastically sponsor Rooftop Movies which include Heinz Co., Mini, Bulmers and Volley among others. The cinema industry has attained a significant reputation and success by generating more employment opportunitie s along with attracting foreign finance for the production of the film industry. The Australian government has documented the inherent social value of the cinema industry which facilitates to promote a sense of identity, appreciation of cultural diversity and social cohesion. Furthermore, the cinema industry of Australia has increasingly delivered economic related benefits by generating a large sum of revenue and has ultimately become a powerful marketer of the nation (Australian Government 2006). It has been recognized that the Australian film industry has been reinvented as well as transformed by advanced technological methods along with innovation. The most significant impact of advanced technology in the movie industry of Australia is the introduction of digital technology. This particular facet of digital-based technology has contributed greatly and posed noteworthy effect upon certain activities that include visual effects, sound mixing, compositing, film and sound editing amo ng others.

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Question discuss and analyse Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Question discuss and analyse - Essay Example More than five million deaths per year are consequences of using tobacco or intensive smoking. Smoking is the main risk factor for top three causes of deaths in Canada and those are cancer, lung disease and cardiovascular disease.Economic cost of $17 billion was bore by Canadian economy as a result of using tobacco in 2002 and in the same year $404 billion of expense for health care was paid directly by Canadian smokers. But the Canadian society is forced to carry costs such as turnover, work absenteeism and income lost due to early deaths. Over a period of time the number of fires resulted from smoking was 36,125 and it cost the Canadian denizens, in property distortion,$433 million. Likewise, the Conference Board of Canada cohered that to employ a smoker than a non-smoker cost them near to $2,565 per year, in 1997. But it is not the society only that bears the economic burden of smoking but in fact it is the smoker himself or herself who have to bear the costs associated to smoking . Smokers are supposed to pay for life insurance premiums and pay billions of dollars in the name of tobacco taxes. And if this is not enough, then there is also the cost of the cigarettes too. Only in the province of Alberta in 2005,† a smoker who smokes a pack a day spends almost $3,650 each year on cigarettes, based on an average price of $10 a pack† (Economic Cost). Additionally, according to the Conference Board of Canada (2012) lung diseases alone costs Canada $12 billion. Analysts believe that if the Canadian populace and government make no effort to combat the dilemma then it is very likely that the cost will double. The cost can be divided in direct health care as 3.4 million (drugs, hospitals, physicians) and $8.6 billion in indirect costs (such as premature death and long term disability)† (Lung Disease Imposes Major Costs on Canada’s Economy, 2012). According to the

Monday, August 26, 2019

French Politics Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

French Politics - Research Paper Example Sarko represents UMP (Union pour un mouvement populaire). He is neo-liberal, authoritarian, pro-American and pro-Israeli. Except for Socialist Francois Mittereand's 14 years reign, France has been ruled by right wing forces since 1958 when Charles de Gaulle ushered in the new Republican regime. Paving the way for the electoral victory of the 52-year old leader of the French Right were the simultaneous decomposition of the French Left and Sarkozy's successful unification of the three streams of the Right - neoliberal, national and fascist. When Sarkozy became "Monsieur le President de la Republique," the 23rd French chief of state, the sixth since the new Constitution of 1958 that initiated the Fifth Republic of France, his true intentions for promised new directions were still ambiguous. Upon the election of Nicolas Sarkozy there was a strong current in the media - both in France and internationally - claiming that "things had changed". Sarkozy, it was said, was the man who would cut back the "gluttonous" French state, "modernising" the economy by curbing the power of the unions and replacing the France of the 35-hour-week with a new more "flexible" culture that valued "hard work". French workers had to prepare for Sarkozy's onslaught. As we have seen with November's rail strikes, university occupations and rioting in the suburbs, resistance to Sarkozy is deep-rooted. Some activists have used the catch-cry "Sarko-facho" ("Sarkozy-fascist"); portrayed him as nothing but a lickspittle of George Bush; or, as the Iranian media now have it, a Mossad agent. Yet most of the French President's pronouncements seem to be in tune with the anti-working class, conservative and authoritarian political tradition of General de Gaulle. On the other hand, Sarkozy's underlining of great national objectives means distancing France from the spirit of liberal free trade. The French Left accuses Sarkozy of being authoritarian and of unstable character. The Left's electoral campaign early this year aimed at trying to rouse his ire and demonstrate his incapacity of leading la douce France. The crude reality is that while the French Left claims a monopoly on morality, the political Right dominates this largely conservative, extremely traditional nation. We only have to think back to spring 2006 when the previous UMP [Gaullist] government attempted to introduce the CPE law to undermine young workers' job stability, or 2005 when it backed the EU Constitution. The continuity in the history of the French right is examined in some detail in the latest issue of the Ni Patrie ni Frontires journal*, which devotes some 62 pages to assessing the character of so-called "Sarkozyism". Sarkozy has taken on great personal power, setting great store by his own image and casting himself as somewhat of a national saviour, in the mould of de Gaulle or a Napoleon. The assertion that Sarkozy represents an

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Biology Lab Report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 2

Biology - Lab Report Example After the conflict, the aggressor scratched itself several times than before the conflict and the rate of scratching decreased after the conflict resolution. The monkeys then demonstrated affinitive interactions between the former opponents as compared to a third party. The monkey’s behavior on conflict resolution impacted positively on our family. They demonstrated that conflicts if solved well can result into better understanding between people without resulting into enmity. This demonstrated the importance of solving conflicts in the family issues instead of leaving them unattended. The Macaca fascicularies also influenced my family perception towards monkeys and other wild animals. Prior to the vacation, my family had not interacted with monkeys before as we used to fear them. When we toured the rainforest, we found out that the monkeys were friendly and they were even kept as pets by the locals. We played with the monkeys and gave them bananas as food. This interaction influenced my family perception towards the monkey. The monkeys also changed our family diet during the vacation. The locals were taking the Macaca fascicularies as food. The diet was also found in many restaurants menu near the rainy forest. My family tried the menu and we found to be very sweet. The diet was then included in my family diet for the rest of our stay in guinea. The interaction with the monkeys influenced my family choice of holiday destinations once we returned home. To have a clue on various species of monkeys that are found in different parts of the world and how they impact on the life of the locals, my family decided that next holiday destination will be to a place habituated by different species of monkeys apart from Macaca

The Existence of God Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

The Existence of God - Essay Example When he does buy it that is not God answering your prayer, but just coincidence. My remarks surprised you because you are a staunch believer in God. You rejected my argument, terming it logically fallacious, saying there is a supreme being that controls our existence and nature. You continued to say that everything that happens does so for a reason, and the reason is God. That was brilliant and so enlightening. Introducing the fallacies of the appeal of faith, I stated that if you do not have faith you could not learn about God and His mysteries. Faith relies on belief and does not base on any evidence, depends on irrationalism in thinking. This implies that, if you do not believe in God, then you surely cannot learn about him. I am not a believer but know little about God, because I believe knowing about Him is not necessarily about faith but interest in learning. You could not agree with me at all from the beginning. Your response was that one has to have faith in God, to understand how mysterious He is, and termed my argument logically fallacious. Also, dismissed my argument saying that you cannot learn about something you do not believe in at all. That was a smart argument and really got me thinking. This was a revelation to me. I also brought forward the fallacy on begging the question or assuming the answer to certain problems in the society. Many people believe that spreading religion among more people in society will instill moral behavior. I did not understand how praise and worship could instill moral behavior in the society, rather than teaching moral behavior and personal choice of people. Being a believer, you explained that from God’s teachings Christians are encouraged to have good moral behaviors. Therefore, spreading religion to more members of society, to have more believers, there will be a change of morality in society. This was a truly factual argument. Receive my

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Engineering ethic Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Engineering ethic - Case Study Example â€Å"The audit alleges "[u]nnecessary costs for material loading, storage and transportation," the installation of temporary roofing, insurance paid prior to work cancellation and "[e]xcessive construction management costs," totaling more than $1.4 million† (Klasfeld). In this case, the violation is primarily bribery. Such cases happen when several influential and dominant members in the contractor and the consultant firms allow bribery for the entertainment of mutual interests. Current and new engineers should beware of the way the contractor-consultant bond can have negative implications for the client. Moreover, Turner Construction Company has conventionally maintained a very good name in the American construction industry. Such allegations from the city comptroller can cause a lot of harm to the company’s image. New engineers should abstain from such unethical construction practices not only because they are wrong but also they tarnish the image of a company, which is the most fundamental asset of any company. In order to prevent such a situation from repeating itself, auditing should be made an essential component of every stage of the project. Particularly, there should be pre-payment auditing. In addition to that, proper documentatio n, reimbursement and adequate use of allowance are compulsory for avoiding such ethical misconducts in the construction practices. I have lived in hostel during my undergraduate studies. Hostel life is completely different from the life at home. You constantly remain among friends and foes. In my hostel, there is a culture of calling one another by awkward names. One of my hostel mates had gynecomastia, because of which, boys started to call him Booby. Coincidently, his name was Bob. Bob got so irritated with his hostel name Booby that he made a cut into his chest with a blade. The matter was taken to the adjutant, who called all hostel boys and said that if Bob reports him about anybody calling

Friday, August 23, 2019

Discussion post Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 10

Discussion post - Essay Example Diabetes therapy involves non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions that include physical exertion (suitable exercises and work), functional feeding, self-monitoring of blood glucose, and use of medications (Napierała, Maik & Żukow, 2011). DSME (Diabetes self-management education) plays a significant role in the care and management of diabetes. Support through technology is associated with feedback on progress and change in behavior for example, use of text messages to serve as reminders to monitor blood glucose (Prescott & Boggs, 2014). Inclusion criteria of selecting the sample for the research are correct because it describes the specific individuals included in a research (Holloway & Wheeler, 2013). The quasi-experimental design is appropriate for the research because it involves participants of an intact group that is separated into two groups, which are given two different interventions. Literature review assists in the development of research questions (Brown, 2014). I agree with Liya Varghese on the discussion about the prevalence of developing a surgical site infection in a period of 30 days after a surgical process. During a surgical procedure, a patient’s skin is prepared by applying antiseptic in circles starting with the area of the incision. The most common agents used for surgical processes include chlorhexidine gluconate, iodophors, and alcohol substances (Gangi, Guth & Guermazi, 2009). Purposeful sampling used in the research is guided by the motivation of the investigation but not statistical calculations. The quasi-experimental design is appropriate because it includes a comparison and a control group in a research. The literature review will help to relate how the current research connects to other investigations (Jackson, 2015). nursing, sport, tourism, recreation and protection of human health =: Wybrane problemy

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Meaning of Life and Br Essay Example for Free

Meaning of Life and Br Essay Fabio Moon and Gabriel Ba illustrated a story through comics that represent different moods and feelings in a series titled Daytripper. Comic books are a form of art, and they provide the reader with a broad spectrum of topics. Artist express the world through colors, symbols, and themes to show feelings, thoughts, and ideas and this can be done through various forms of art, which includes comic books. The illustrations in comic books help to convey the meaning of the story. In Daytripper, Moon and Ba describe Bras de Oliva Domingo’s life and how choices produce outcomes both good and bad. At a young age Bras believes that anything is possible, and one never knows what is in store for him at the end. His philosophy in life are the same principles as in fishing as one casts a line the excitement builds because one never knows what is on the end of the line. Water is reoccurring in the story, and it symbolizes Bras de Oliva Domingo’s struggles to stay above water through his sea of memories of his life. In the beginning, Bras feels there are no boundaries and one can explore as many opportunities life has to offer. Life’s daily decisions shape the outcomes both good and bad. The purpose is to learn from ones past decisions and make changes improve our relationships and to be content with our lives in the end. The main character has ample opportunity to make changes along his journey for he experiences death at each phase of his life. Bras discovers endless possibilities from the seas from Iemanja, the spirit of the waters, in a dream they are riding in a boat through rough seas being tossed around with baskets that represent wishes and desires. Moon and Ba illustrate how in Bras dreams his lifes goals are laid out as he wishes. Just as water flows in and out, Bras dreams come in and out each night in his sleep. Bras flows through life just like water flows in and out never knowing where it will end up. Rougher waves represent new opportunities that continuously arise, but if one waits to long to take advantage of the opportunity then the waves may carry away the opportunity. As waves are continuously moving new chances will be present time and time again. Bras misses many opportunities because he is not willing â€Å"to go after his dreams† (203). His dreams tell him time is running out, and he needs to make the most of his opportunities. Each dream ends with â€Å"wake up before it’s too late† (203). Bras dreams about his possibilities and wishes he could take a chance to change his life, but he never does. Bras is just an observer in his dreams watching as the water passes by carrying the baskets. The dark colors and spirit of the waters are a main part of the artwork in the comic. Bras has responsibilities to his job and his wife, and he is content with both just cruising through each day. His life is similar to the ocean how the waves move along to the shore and effortlessly move back out to sea. He learns lessons along the way which he has no control and finds his wife frustrated with him from living a content and everyday life. Illustrations show water running full blast when they are not doing dishes or running any water. She later clinches the sink that is overflowing with water because Bras does not understand their life has joy and love. She wants her life to be less stressful so that the sink will stop overflowing. Just by Bras listening to his wife the water pressure will lessen, and the sink will not fill as quickly. Bras turns a deaf ear and does not listen, and the water just flows over the kitchen sink onto the floor. The overflow of water represents her stress, and he comes to realize he can help decrease the stress by making a few simple changes. She keeps trying to explain to him she cannot do it all on her own while he just sits there and listens. The overflow of water represents the burdens she feels by their life and needs Bras help to alleviate some of the daily pressures from her. As she pours him tea, the water flows up to the dining room table, and he finally understands her frustration over his laziness. At this point, Bras realizes by helping his family they will not be so overwhelmed and the water will stop overflowing. Just as the seas calm at times, Bras too feels tranquility at the end of his life. One late night he steps in the ocean and stares at the sky as it changes from dark and ordinary to a burst of stars symbolizing the calmness of the night. The peacefulness of the water helps Bras feel satisfied with his life. He feels at peace with his relationships with his dad, wife, and son. He smiles as he looks out on the calm ocean accepting his final destiny to be swept away by the sea. He stands in the water thinking for a long time accepting his fate, and the calm water represents he is at harmony with his life. The reader is left to complete his fate, which may just be Bras swimming out as far as he can until he the water carries him out to sea. The story connects water and life as a cycle that is continuously flowing. Water represents constant change just as one’s life changes through the years. Psychiatrists have used water for years as a representation of ones mind because the deeper you go the more problems one may see. The ocean represents power and strength and people have the same characteristics. Every day we make choices and some outcomes can be predicted and others cannot. The beauty of the ocean is the unknown and change and how the meaning relates to life. One can change their behavior and possibly the outcome may change. It all is part of the cycle of life. Works Cited Moon, Fabio and Gabriel Ba. Daytripper. New York: DC Comics, 2011.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Economic Concepts of Vicarious Liability

Economic Concepts of Vicarious Liability a) Explain the economic logic behind laws related to the concept of vicarious liability The simple definition of vicarious liability is where an individual or firm can be held responsible for torts committed by another, the most common case for that is of employers and employees. Vicarious liability differs from secondary liability as it doesnt deal with cases of negligence on the employers behalf, it instead relates to the scope of employment not the respondent superior. Normally when torts are committed the liability lies with the person who authorises the tort, however this is not always enough hence the introduction of vicarious liability. If companies know that they can be held vicariously liable and face the full cost for a tort then they will ensure they minimise the chances of committing a tort, this is done by better monitoring of the employees. This seems fine for large companies who have the money to monitor and the money to be able to pay any compensation. However small firms are far more disadvantaged as they dont have the resources to monitor or pay compen sation, this will mean the risk of accidents is not likely to decrease. Employers will more often than not be held vicariously liable for their employees actions. The Salmond test was developed in the 1930s to check if a tortuous act was part of an unauthorised act authorised by the employer or one the was instigate by the employee only. This was really the first definitions of vicarious liability and has been used as a test in many cases since. However over the years it has become more watered down slightly in favour of the employers. By 1969 the government had introduced a law forcing companies to take out insurance to cover cases of vicarious liability. The Employees Liability Act meant that any company in the UK would have to insure against liability of its employees and of its own actions. This would now mean that even if the company didnt take care the insurance would be able to pay the full social cost of the tort. The act also made it compulsory to have  £5 million of insu rance to make sure it will cover the full liability claim for compensation. It should therefore be in the employers interest to take more care of what they task employees to do knowing that ultimate responsibility can lie with the employer. The law up to the late 1990s stipulated that the employer could only be found vicariously liable if it was found they had authorised the employee to do something that was unauthorised. If however the employer was found not to have authorised any such behaviour the employer himself would be found liable. Since 2001 the House of Lords sees that we should focus on the link between what it is an employee is tasked to do and the nature of the tort committed. In most cases it makes good economic sense that employers should be found to be liable as well as the employees. Not just because they have a greater ability to pay compensation but because they should take more care when overlooking what their employees are tasked to do. b) In the case of an employer/employee relationship, is there a case for extending liability beyond the employer? To analyse this properly it is best to look at some recent case studies. One of the largest rail crashes on the British rail system was the Hatfield rail crash in 2000, it left 4 people dead and 102 injured. After the crash a long and painstaking enquiry took place to see how the crash happened and who the blame lied with. The enquiry found that a section of the track was badly damaged which led to the train derailing, the section of track was found to have been neglected for a period of 21months. The court held the maintenance company (Balfour Beatty) liable and fined them  £10 million pounds, a record amount for the time. The court also gave the parent company of Balfour Beatty a hefty fine, Balfour Beatty was managed by Railtrack who were handed a  £3.5 million fine for breaching safety rules. The judge said it was â€Å"one of the worst examples of sustained industrial negligence in a high risk industry† the crash could have been easily averted if a safety checking pla n was in place and properly followed. In this case liability had to be extended beyond the employer Balfour Beatty as Railtrack were at fault for not properly regulating the maintenance work. There was however no charges brought against the employees as they were only following the orders of the employer Balfour Beatty. In this case Balfour Beatty should take most of the blame as they are mainly at fault for not implementing the correct maintenance procedures. However Railtrack should and rightly took some of the blame as they should have been more closely supervising the what company they controlled was doing as it was in their interests. If a company van driver for example injures a pedestrian on a crossing who is liable? The employer can be liable for hiring a incompetent driver, but also the driver can be held liable as he was careless in his driving. So in a case like this it is right to extend liability as the company cannot be held solely liable due the driver not taking due care in his job. However it is usual that the pedestrian would only sue the company that employs the driver, this is mainly because it is harder to sue on a personal liability claim and also the companies have a greater ability to pay compensation. c) Is there a case for criminal liability in the context of vicarious liability? In most cases firms are vicariously liable in cases of civil liability, however they can also been prosecuted as part of criminal vicarious liability. The conventional thinking is that adding criminal liability to strict vicarious liability is a good thing, it should reduce corporate crime and also be efficient in its prevention. However more recent analysis suggest that in some cases adding vicarious liability to corporate criminal liability does not encourage corporations to be more cautious. It is widely said that trying to add criminal liability to vicariously liability is extremely complicated. Taking the case of Ferguson vs Weaving as an example vicarious liability was trying to be applied to a charge of aiding and abetting. Weaving was the licensee of a hotel, she was charged with aiding and abetting for allowing drinkers to consume alcohol after the hours permitted by the law. The licensee said that it wasnt her fault as she had instructed the waiters and waitresses to collec t up glasses before 10pm, the time at which she was licensed to allow consumption of alcohol. The court did not sympathise with her and were only concerned with the fact that she had broken the law. Therefore ultimate responsibility lay with the licensee and she was charged with aiding and abetting unlawful drinking. In many ways criminal liability should be extended to the vicariously liable firm as ultimately it is the firm that is responsible for its employees, obviously if the employee does some that is completely unauthorised buy the firm, it should be the employee that receives any criminal charges. Vicarious criminal liability however is not always useful as explained by Kraakman firms seem to be immune to criminal sanctions. The criminal penalties on firms are just not large enough to deter torts. In the case of Railtrack and Balfour Beatty the fines were argued to be non efficient, the money they were fined does not do the general public any good. Money they could have spent on improving the rail service was lost through the fine, instead it could have been better to force criminal charges on the two companies and forced them to invest in the rail network. References: Liability in Tort, 3400 Vicarious and corporate civil liability, Reinier H. Kraakman Vicarious Liability in Criminal Law, The Modern Law Review, Vol. 14, No. 3 (Jul., 1951), pp. 334-340, J. Ll. J. Edwards The Potentially Perverse Effects of Corporate Criminal Liability, The Journal of Legal Studies, Vol. 23, No. 2 (Jun., 1994), pp. 833-867, Jennifer Arlen Employers liability (compulsory insurance) act 1969

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

The Crucible | Analysis

The Crucible | Analysis The tragic events that unfold in The Crucible are to an extent caused by Abigails sexual desire however she is not the only one to blame. The Crucible is about the Salem Witch Trials which took place in 17th century Massachusetts where 19 innocent people were condemned. Considering the atmosphere of the Puritan society presented in the novel, a significant event like this is bound to occur sooner or later. Even though she is the trigger to the mass hysteria which occurs in the novel, her desires are only partly to be blamed. We see throughout the play how Abigail manipulates the people around her to get to this ultimate desire. Nevertheless, we must also take into account the role of John Proctor and a combination of other things in the novel which are also at fault. One could argue that Abigail was only the catalyst and just sped up the course of action and chain of events. In the early 1600s Puritans arrived to the New World from England where they established their religious intolerant colonies. Puritanism was a very austere branch of Anglican Church during the 16th and 17th centuries. They broke off from the Church as they felt that their practices were still very close to that of the Catholic Church. In order to avoid religious persecution in England they left for America. The Puritans feared this new land and especially its inhabitants. They often attributed the natives with voodoo and magic. They feared that there was evil in every corner even within their own communities. This story takes place in 1692 in a small colonial town of Salem, Massachusetts. It was a theocratic society where church and state were one and judicial system was based upon the bible. God was the supreme leader of society. Those who questioned the courts were thought of as questioning God himself. (You must understand, sir, that a person is either with this court or he must be counted against it, there be no road between.) You were either a man of God or the devil. The Puritan culture was governed by the church and was extremely restrictive. It was a male dominated society where the men made the rules. Physical labor and following strict guidelines was the only way to be a proper Christian and show your faithfulness. In this society there was also a strong belief in witchcraft and superstition. Strange incidences including sickness like in the play where girls become ill, death, and plague are considered to be the works of the devil. They were blamed on the devil or his followers. This led to people becoming frightened and accusing others of witchcraft. There was a mass hysteria. These witch trials were a crucial part of restoring the honor and goodness of the community. This was also fueled by grudges and jealousies among the people of the community. Some wanted land while some blamed others for their troubles and miseries. A good example is the Putnams. Mr. Putnam covets land and so he falsely accuses others then buys up their land while Mrs. Putnam accused Rebecca Nurse of witchcraft basing it on the fact that seven of her children had died while Nurse had never lost a single child or grandchild. (They were murdered, Mr. Paris! And mark this proof!) At the end, in September 1692, nineteen inno cent people and two dogs were convicted and hanged for witchcraft while hundreds others were accused and dozens others still remained in jail on charges of witchcraft. In the midst of all this madness was Abigail Williams. Abigail Williams is a very attractive, unmarried, 18 year old orphan, and the main antagonist of the play. She is the niece of Reverend Parris. She is also the ringleader of the group of adolescent girls and drives the action of the play foreword. She is very smart, cunning, and also revengeful. Abigails and the other girls actions at the start of the play are the effect of the towns strict atmosphere. We learn that the girls were caught dancing in the forest. The forest is considered to be the stronghold of the devil where danger and evil lurks. That is probably one of the main reasons why the girls went there. They wanted to feel the excitement of doing something unlawful. Early on in the play we also learn that before the events of the play Abigail used to work as a servant at the Proctors household. After it was discovered by Goody Proctor that Proctor and Abigail were having an affair she fired Abigail. Proctor commits adultery with her and takes away her innocence. I look for John Proctor that took me from my sleep and put knowledge in my heart! I never knew what pretense Salem was, I never knew the lying lessons I was taught by all these Christian women and their covenanted men! And now you bid me tear the light out of my eyes? I will not, I cannot! You loved me, John Proctor, and whatever sin it is, you love me yet! In Salem the people live a gloomy and very simple life. All types of free behavior and desires are discouraged and forbidden in the Puritan society. They are thought of as unnatural and work of the devil. Abigail is not the only one with desires. There are other characters such as Mr. Putnam who wants to have his neighbors land and Paris who wants more power and control over the town. Abigails desire and jealousy is caused by Procter. She thinks that Proctor loves her and her only however is unable to be with her mainly due to Elizabeth. She wants love and to be adored. She sees herself as the true love of Proctor. It is also important to note that Abigail probably was never loved much by her close relatives and that is why she lusts for Proctor. Her parents were brutally killed by Indians. (I saw Indians smash my dear parents heads on the pillow next to mine, and I have seen some reddish work done at nightà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦) Its her desires for Procter and her envy of Elizabeth Procter who she wants to take revenge upon for dismissing her. (Oh, I marvel how such a strong man may let such a sickly wife beà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ She is blackening my name in the village! She is telling lies about me! She is a cold, sniveling woman, and you bend to her!) It is clear that throughout the action of the play what Abigails motifs are. Abigail wants power. Once she realizes what she can do by accusing people of witchcraft, she takes full advantage of it. Abigail had no problem with sinning and falsely accusing innocents of witchcraft in order to get Proctor. Throughout the play Abigail tells countless lies to manipulate her friends, the town and the judiciary and then at the end causing the deaths of 19 people. Abigail was responsible for the wicked behavior of the girls in the forest which got them into some serious trouble. There are already rumors around town of Abigails affair with Proctor now on top of that people are talking of witchcraft. At the start she only tries to conceal the truth for if it gets out that Abigail drank a charm to kill Goody Proctor, she could be severely punished or even be hanged for it. At first when she is accused of witchcraft she tries to get all the girls under control by threatening them. (Now look you. All of you. We danced. And Tituba conjured Ruth Putnams dead sisters. And that is all.) And mark this. Let either of you breathe a word , or the edge of a word, about the other things, and I will come to you in the black of some terrible night and I will bring a point reckoning that will shudder you. And you know I can do it; And you know I can do it I can make you wish you had never seen the sun go down. Once questioned about the forest incident by Hale she lies and is quick to blame the whole thing on Tituba. (She sends her spirit out on me in church; she makes me laugh at prater! She comes to me every night to go and drink blood!) Tituba was a slave meaning she has a lower status and so is an easy target for she is from Barbados and is familiar with black magic making her suspicious. Subsequently Tituba does the unexpected by confessing to the false charges and naming other associates of the devil. Realizing this Abigail does the same and the girls follow. She firstly accuses the outcasts of society to get the support from the townsfolk knowing well that they will easily believe it. She shifts the attention from herself by crying witchcraft. I want to open myself! . . . I want the light of God, I want the sweet love of Jesus! I danced for the Devil; I saw him, I wrote in his book; I go back to Jesus; I kiss His hand. I saw Sarah Good with the Devil! I saw Goody Osburn with the Devil! I saw Bridget Bishop with the Devil! This is when the hysteria starts and it slowly builds up from here. By doing this Abigail gets the respect and appreciation of the people. This in a way gives her unlimited power over the town which she can use to accuse anyone in the town and get away with it. She is a woman with so much power in a society run by the men. She uses this power to manipulate the court by first gaining their trust and sympathy for her as she is the victim and then spreading more and more lies along with the rest of the group. Furthermore, if one of the girls goes against her as with the case of Mary Warren, she accuses them of witchcraft as well. (A wind, a cold wind, has comeà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Why do you come, yellow bird? You cannot want to tear my face. Envy is a deadly sin, Maryà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦) This just shows that she is determined to get Proctor. However at the end after seeing that because of her Proctor will hang, she runs away. Proctor, who finally confesses his guilt, raising questions of the cred ibility of the girls, dies a noble man and undermines the authority of the judiciary and the its judges including Danforth. Danforth is one of the judges of the witch trials. He is also guilty for the part he played in the witch trials. At the start of the play he did strongly believe in this absurdity and on top of that he had probably already condemned several witches. He should be blamed for his failure to stop the insanity. There was absolutely no evidence against the accused except for the words of a few mindless adolescent girls and their ring leader. Towards the end of the play it was clear that the whole thing was blown out of proportion and that the girls were lying, Abigail along with Mercy ran away with stolen money right after accusing Hathrones wife and the rebellion against the court in Andover. Knowing this quite well he still chose to continue instead of pardoning the accused. There will be no postponement. You misunderstand, sir; I cannot pardon these when twelve are already hanged for the same crime. It is not just. He was probably more worried about his position as judge and deputy gove rnor of Massachusetts. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Postponement now speaks a floundering on my part; reprieve or pardon must cast doubt upon the guilt of them that died till now. While I speak Gods lawà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ He convinced himself he was doing the right thing and also seeing that it would not look good on his part and reputation of the judiciary that innocents were killed. Desire is a basic human quality. You cannot turn it off or control it. From the start of the play Abigail was determined to get Procter. With sexual desires people dont always act consciously. Now for such a significant event like this to occur something else needs to happen first. In a religious and Theocratic society, the belief in witchcraft is already strong enough. Abigail inserts her problems with Procter into the story. However she is not the main character responsible for the events which take place. John Procter shares the guilt too as he is the one who put knowledge in her head and taught her everything she knew. She harms and manipulates everybody around her whom she hates or blocks her path of reaching her ultimate goal, John Procter which in the end she fails to accomplish. Abigail is the devil. She causes all the problems, starts and builds up the hysteria, causes quarrels among people, and brings about the destruction of the town. In this strict Puritan society we see how the people of the town twist the rules of God for their own purposes and to fulfill their own needs which in the end lead to the death of 19 innocent people. The main cause of the Salem Witch Trials is a disastrous combination of things which were slowing building up even before the events of the play. The society, Proctors affair with Abigail, teenage boredom, the townsfolks personal troubles, miseries, suspicions and covets, and Danforths failure to bring it to an end which altogether are responsible for the events which unfold. Abigails sexual desire was only the responsible for the mass hysteria and the escalation in The Crucible.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Essay --

In this topic I’m going to analyze quality of life in Dubai.Dubai is one of the most developed city andit is suitable city for life, because everything is high-quality. Also in this essay I will seek to evaluate the positive and negative impacts of quality of life in Dubai, with count: population, social factors, environmental factor, economy factors. Population Actuallynumber of citizen in Dubai is 17% of general population. General population in Dubai is 2.106 million, hence 1.748 million(83%) people are immigrants, such as 52.2% Indian, 13.3% Pakistani, 7.5% Bangladeshi, 2.5% Filipino, 1.5% Sri Lankan, 0.3% American and 5.7% other countries. Everybody knows that UAE is very successful by plenty of oil, free trade and immovable market, but also on using low-paid labor (immigrants) to create city without big expenses.Government understand situation with less number of citizen and with in every way want to increase them and improve life of own citizen. Social Factors: 1)Immigration 1 dollar = 3.67 AED (dirham) As well as known,using immigrants is more cheap than using citizen (i...

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Homophobia :: Gay Lesbian Bisexual Prejudice

Homophobia refers to a prejudicial belief that gay, lesbian, and bisexual people are threatening. They see them as sick, unnatural, immoral, or disgusting people that are inferior to heterosexuals and they deserve to be hated. Homophobia tends to occur on several distinct but joined levels. These levels are personal, interpersonal, institutional, and cultural. One of the main reasons why people tend to be prejudice against gay, lesbian, and bisexual are based on inaccurate stereotypes and lack of information that is provided by society. Society portrays sexual minorities as sick, perverted, or nonexistent. There are quite a few people who are not aware that they may know healthy gay, lesbian, and bisexual individuals. Many people, fearing they might be gay, lesbian, and bisexual, prefer to attack individual who are as a way of avoiding self-identification. People tend to link homosexuality and bisexuality with sexual behavior. Since we live in a culture that is reluctant to acknowledge any form of open sexuality, homosexuality and bisexuality is slowly becoming a problem. Our society is more accepting of the traditional male or female relationship. However, we fail to notice that people can lead successful and creative lives without having to fit a set pattern. People who feel uncomfortable or uncertain about their sexual orientation or relationships think that going against the norm can be disturbing and intimidating. My friends often ask me why am I friends with people who are gay I would in return ask them why wouldn’t they be friends with someone who is gay as a way of challenging their knowledge and beliefs. For example, when someone makes a statement against gays having the right to marry, I ask them why and how they think this could possibly hurt anyone. I ask whether they feel it is fair to tell that person that his or her dreams of romance and marriage to the person he or she loves is disgusting. Would they rather have that person put such thoughts out of their minds and plan to live a loveless and passionless life?

Revolutionary Viewpoints Essay -- essays research papers

Revolutionary Viewpoints   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Beginning in 1773, the Tea Act, Boston Tea Party, and the Coercive Acts directly brought about the split between Britain and its American colonies. These events were a series of causes and effects and were viewed from extremely different viewpoints by the two sides. Because of these viewpoints, both sides saw force as the next logical step.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Tea Act was passed by Parliament in 1773. It gave the British East India Company a virtual monopoly on the tea trade in North America while keeping the Townshend tea tax. The monopoly lowered the price of tea, but it hurt colonial businessmen. Soon the colonies started to boycott tea. For the British, the Tea Act sounded like a wonderful idea because it lowered the price on tea. The Tea Act could also let the colonies show that they are Englishmen and it was good for the whole empire. But on the other hand, the colonies thought the tea act was slowly taking away their rights, ruining their 150 years of tradition. Their tradition was that they only were taxed for local reasons.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Since the Tea Act was going on, people were boycotting tea coming from England. This led to the Boston Tea Party. The Boston Tea Party was when 3 ships full of tea had arrived from England and the townspeople were refusing to pay the tax. So the ships could not be unloaded. Then the group, Sons of Liberty boarded the ship dressed as Native Americans...

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Cinderella Not a Love Story Essay

A very common fairy tale that we have grown up hearing is the story of Cinderella, a poor girl whose dreams of marrying a prince and living happily ever after, finally comes true after many years of wishing upon a star. Individual writers of the â€Å"Cinderella† story may alter the story, but the general concept is always the same. This classic story has been told to millions of children and is known as a great romance. A romance is supposed to have suspense, anticipation, and a deep connection between the two characters that have and/or are falling in love with each other, and Cinderella is none of those. â€Å"Cinderella† is a great rags to riches story, but it is far from a romance. Cinderella is a 17 to 22 year old girl that suffers from an abusive home life. The abuse Cinderella suffers from is mainly verbal; however, some things in the story could defiantly be considered physical abuse. The abusive is inflicted by her two step-sisters and her step-mother. Since Cinderella’s mother died when she was a small child it is assumed that she looks to her step-mother for approval the way young girls look to their mother for approval. Depending on the version of â€Å"Cinderella† you read her father is either dead, or he is a spineless man who does not protect her from her step-mother and step-sisters. Do to the abusive living environment, Cinderella is looking for a way out, like any young girl would be, that is required to do all the house hold chores and is treated poorly. When Cinderella hears about the ball she wants to go, but deep inside her she knows that she will not be allowed. In Charles Perrault’s â€Å"Cinderillon† a fairy godm other appears, that helps Cinderella in going to the ball. Cinderella knows that if she makes a good impression on the prince that he may want to marry her, which would give her a way to escape her horrible living environment. In Perrault’s and may other version of â€Å"Cinderella† the prince and Cinderella dance until midnight they do not engage in any conversation nor do they kiss. They only simple of affection here is that the prince does not allow anyone to cut in there dancing. When the clock sticks midnight Cinderella leaves quickly because all the fairy godmothers magic is about to wear off. Cinderella accidently leaves behind a glass slipper. If Cinderella didn’t lose the glass slipper the story would be over. That does not show true love. The prince vows to marry the women the glass slipper fits. It’s hard to believe that in the whole kingdom that the slipper wouldn’t fit anyone else. A few things to think about here are what would have happened if the slipper did fit another and what if the slipper was not left. It is hard to believe that the prince loves Cinderella if he cannot recognize her without the glass slipper fitting her foot. In modern day that would be like saying that one’s husband cannot recognize her without her makeup on. If you love someone to the point that you want to share your life entire life with them then you should be able to recognize them regardless of minor changes such as dressed-up or just done rolling in the dirt.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Mind/Body Problem Essay

The mind/body problem is the problem of specifying the relationship between the mind and body. Before further explanation of this issue, it is important to fully understand each term as it is being used throughout this paper. The mind, as I will call it, is representational of the consciousness of an individual. This is to say that the part of a person which determines will and choice, the experiences and sensations are collectively referred to as mind. The body, at times more specifically, the brain, denotes the physical aspects of a person. This is inclusive of the physical mass, neurons responsiveness to stimuli, and physical location. Now, with a more complete understanding of mind and body, one is able to return to the issue of the relationship concerning the two. One way to view this subject is to think of it as defining the relationship of mental states and brain (neural) states. While philosophers have not reached a definitive explanation to this issue, the years have provided ample time for a few prominent theories to develop. It may be thought that science could provide an answer to our problem, though this is not the case. While science may give us insight to different functions of brain states that correlate to mental processes, it does not definitely prove how they are related or why. This can be explained through the point of view perception. Science can give a clear understanding of how the brain functions; it can paint a rich picture of the inputs and outputs. Science may also have the ability to explain what feelings and emotions are. For example, it may be able to explain biting into a summer peach and describe the taste. However, science cannot experience the way a summer peach tastes to me, as an individual. It cannot feel the way I do whenever I think about my mother. This is the difference in the third person perspective (the only one that science is truly able to offer) and the first person perspective of the individual actually experiencing the situation. While it seems as though there is a causal relationship between the mind and body, meaning that the mind affects the body and the body has an effect on the mind, the question still remains as to how this interaction functions and why. It is at this point that philosophers provide different solutions to these questions. The dualist perspective offers that the mind and body are two completely distinct ontological entities, whether in composition, function, or interaction. Conversely, the physicalist argues that the mind and body are both explainable in physical terms because there is nothing more to this world than the physical aspects. This is to say that the mind is of the same stuff as the body because in fact, they are the same. The mind is simply a process of the physical brain. Frank Jackson utilizes a mind experiment in his writing, What Mary Didn’t Know to challenge this thought of physicalism. Jackson asks his readers to imagine a woman named Mary who is confined to a black and white room. She is taught through a black and white screen everything that there is to know about the physical nature of the world. According to physicalism, she knows all there is to know. However, one day Mary is taken outside of the black and white room. At this time, she will learn what it is like to see and experience the color red. According to Jackson, Mary learns something new; something above and beyond all of her physical knowledge of the world. If this is the case, that would result in the fact that there are some things in the world that are not physical things. Jackson’s argument may be structured in a way that clearly defines his point. Mary knows everything physical there is to know about other people. Mary does not know everything there is to know about other people. It follows that there are truths about other people that escape the physicalist’s story. Utilizing the knowledge argument, Jackson asserts that because Mary learned what experiencing the color red is like, that she learned something new and gained knowledge about something outside the physicalist’s argument. This, in Jackson’s perspective, discredits physicalism because if while in the black and white room Mary knows every physical fact, then she must know everything. However, by gaining a new experience and learning something outside of the room, then there are things that cannot be explained physically. Jackson argues that learning on a black and white screen isn’t enough to learn about mental life. It is not enough to learn about the qualia of experiences. These qualia refer to the individual qualitative feelings of an experience. For example, what tasting a ripe summer peach is actually like to experience. Therefore there must be something more to the story. Taking a different view, Colin McGinn offers his perspective on the mind/body problem in his writing, Can we Solve the Mind—Body Problem? McGinn suggests that no, we cannot solve the mind/body problem and therein lies our solution- that we should not be worried about this issue because we will never be able to solve it. McGinn maps out several reasons to support his conclusion. He begins by explaining why previous attempts of explanation have failed to clarify the mind/body problem. McGinn states that previous arguments use one of two tactics. The first is to resort to the use of supernatural means. McGinn says that this is just as â€Å"extreme as the problem†, meaning that proving this premise is just as difficult as the conclusion it is designed to support. Furthermore, he says that other arguments employ the use of explaining mental states through physical properties of the brain. This proves problematic as well. McGinn offers a different avenue, it is what he calls, cognitive closure. He believes that there is a natural explanation for the way in which the mind and body interact with each other but that we, as humans, are closed to its explanation. He proposes his argument in this way: Human minds are similar to biological bodies in which that they have different levels of capacity and cognitive capability. Even though a mind may not possess the cognitive ability to understand a concept, this would not imply that the concept is untrue. He uses the example of the light spectrum. While humans can only view a small portion of the light spectrum, it does not discount the other levels. The same principle may be applied here. Furthermore, an idea may be completely cognitively closed if there is no possibility of any mind being able to understand it. However, the same standard of its truth value remains. McGinn argues that the mind/body problem is an issue that is completely cognitively closed to humans. Therefore, no matter what advancements in science or technology that may occur, it will still never be enough to understand the mind/body problem. This should give humans some peace of mind. McGinn says that there should be not need to worry about solving an issue that can never be solved. Keeping McGinn’s paradigm of thought in mind, once again consider Jackson’s article, What Mary didn’t know. While Jackson seems to offer a strong argument, McGinn may object to it on the basis of his first premise. If the human mind is cognitively closed to certain levels of knowledge, then it is impossible for Mary to learn everything there is to know in her black and white room. In fact, it does not matter where Mary receives her learning, she will never gain complete knowledge. Her limit would reach the level of knowledge in which her brain is cognitively open to her. While it is true that Mary would have the knowledge of everything that humans could possibly understand; she still is not all-knowing. By denying Jackson’s first premise, it renders his argument invalid.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Gilgamed vs Aeneid Essay

The Evolution of the â€Å"Highway to Hell† in Classical Mythology Mythology, by denotation, is â€Å"a traditional story, especially one concerning the early history of a people or explaining some natural or social phenomenon, and typically involving supernatural beings or events.† Myths are an entity that evolve through time and through the changing of culture in order to tailor to the people telling the story; as such, we often see a series of different versions develop reflecting a relatively similar story. In this paper, the similarities and differences of the representation of the Underworld in The Epic of Gilgamesh and Virgil’s Aeneis will be analyzed and applied to the culture of the authors. We read these myths thousands of years after they were written in order to gain an understanding of the world’s past, analyze the minds of our progenitors, and ponder the mystery of human origins. In abridgment, The Epic of Gilgamesh, tells the four thousand y ear old Mesopotamian tale of Gilgamesh, the fifth King of Uruk and demigod. In this myth, the story begins with Gilgamesh and his former enemy and current best friend Enkidu. Together, they kill the Bull of Heaven, a deity sent in revenge by the goddess Ishtar to destroy their crops. When Enkidu kills the bull, he angers the gods, prompting them to kill Gilgamesh’s closest friend in retribution. After this traumatic event, Gilgamesh slips in to a state of infatuation with the meanings of life and death. Searching for the meaning of life and a path to eternal life, he sets off on a quest to find a man who lives in the Underworld and is called Utnapishtim; Gilgamesh believes him to be a mortal man who survived a great flood and was rewarded with immortality. On his quest to arrive in the Underworld, Gilgamesh encounters Siduri: the barmaid at the edge of the sea, Urshanabi: the boatman of the Underworld, and finally Utnapishtim: the immortal keeper of the Underworld. Upon meeting Utnapishtim, Gilgamesh coaxes him into revealing the secret to immortality: a flower at the bottom of the sea. This analysis will be focused on Tablet X. The second major work included in this analysis is the Roman, Virgil’s The Aeneid, Book VI. In synopsis, this myth tells t he story of Aeneas after the Trojan War and his quest to lead his people. The preluding chapters of The Aeneid describe Aeneas’s adventures after the fall of Troy and in the Underworld portion of the myth, Aeneas seeks the Underworld in order to obtain the advice of his late father. In the Underworld, not only does Aeneas meet his father but also his former lover. Virgil’s The Aeneid and The Epic of Gilgamesh both portray two heroes on an adventure mission to the Underworld to avenge the past and discover the future; however there are stark differences in these outwardly similar myths. Initially, when comparing these two stories, one must consider the context from which they come. Virgil’s epic poem is one which draws on the Roman culture and was written between 29 and 19 BC while in contrast, The Epic of Gilgamesh is one of the oldest known works of literature and is centered around the Mesopotamian culture of the significantly older 2000 BC. Noting this substantial gap in not only geography, but also the time warp is important as we continue in our analysis of these two works. The Romans depicted in The Aeneid held clear beliefs that one who led a good life would reap the benefits in the afterlife whereas the Mesopotamians’ ancient culture seems to have left their ideas starkly vacant towards the concept of death and the afterlife. When Gilgamesh arrived at the first ingress of the Underworld, he met the barmaid Siduri in her tavern at the edge of the sea. She said to him the following: â€Å"There has never been a ferry of any kind, Gilgamesh, and nobody from time immemorial has crossed the sea† (Tablet X, p. 433). In a very similar style to The Epic of Gilgamesh, the Sibyl, The Aeneid’s fortune-telling equivalent of Siduri, also meets Aeneas at the edge of the Sea of Death and tells him, â€Å"All nights, all days too, dark Dis’s portals lie open. But to recall those steps, to escape to the fresh air above you, There lies the challenge, the labor! A few have succeeded†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Aeneid, Book 6, line 128-130). After this warning, she gives Aeneas somewhat cryptic instructions on how to collect a golden branch which, if fate allows, will grant him access to the Underworld. In juxtaposing these two quotes from these scenes of the myths, we can get a sense of the archetypes and ideals behind the people who wrote them. As depicted in the quote from The Epic of Gilgamesh, it comes to light that not only does Gilgamesh not know what to expect from the Underworld and the afterlife, but also Siduri doesn’t quite have a tangible notion of what should happen to someone who passes into the underworld and is not dead. In contrast, the apparently more experienced Sibyl tells Aeneid that it will not be easy, but makes this task sound much more feasible. She has exact instructions for him and quite simply, leaves the verdict of his eligibility to fate. Through this comparison we can begin to notice some of the culture of the respective  times which permeates these myths. Gilgamesh’s tale is older and the author was writing from a decidedly more undeveloped mythological perspective; for the people of The Epic of Gilgamesh’s time, death was undefined and impalpable. However, for the people living in the time in which Virgil was writing, death, although intimidating, was something that one who did not commit sins, did not need to fear. Looking a bit more in depth, we can see that these myths give us a glimpse in to the minds of the people who lived in the time in which they were written. In The Aeneid, Aeneas goes to the Underworld to seek counsel from the deceased whereas in contrast, G ilgamesh goes as part of a quest to ultimately avoid the underworld in immortality. We can see a complete lack of fear of death written through the words of Virgil when Aeneid addresses his deceased father in line 698, â€Å"†¦Father, give me your hand! Give it, don’t pull away as I hug and embrace you! Waves of tears washed over his cheeks as he spoke in frustration: Three attempts made to encircle his father’s neck with his outstretched arms yielded three utter failures.† Through this quote, it becomes apparent to us that Aeneid feels no fear for the dead; he feels simply frustration at the fact that he can’t embrace his father. In blunt contrast, in The Epic of Gilgamesh when the Underworld and death is described, it is described as the following: â€Å"Nobody sees Death, nobody sees the face of Death, nobody hears the voice of Death, Savage Death just cuts mankind down† (pg 435). This description from the older of the two works lacks the s ense of knowing and fate that is seen as a reoccurring theme in The Aeneid; it is an undefined mystery that still has not been conquered. In this ancient text, we are reintroduced to the idea of Gilgamesh fearing the after-life, verses Aeneas facing it and accepting a fate which has been predetermined. In the end, the Underworld experiences of Aeneas and Gilgamesh each bring forth experiences which are similar, yet are each one is molded in its own way to produce something that reflects their corresponding cultures. Both plotlines tell the account of a demigod hero with a god-invoked tragic past and their path to a quasi-interchangeable Underworld as a means of catharsis. Considering that these two myths, having been from as much as a thousand years apart and two different regions of the world, have so many striking plot similarities, one must marvel at the power of the story passed through the generations. Myths have survived the test of time and changing cultures to create the myriad of  memoirs that we still enjoy in the modern age. These myths, although no longer something that we typically consider a part of modern religion, allow us a peek into the past. The history of our development through anthropologic changes and our perpetually morphing understandings of the meaning of life is preserved in the mythological collections of our earliest predecessors. The perspective offered in classic mythology offers us a sense of the concept of life and death as it was viewed by those who lived so l ong ago.

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

If Legislation Fails Who is There to Follow?

Judge Richard C Wesley, who had worked in the Legislature of New York, and subsequently, in its High Court, gave a speech in the Albany Law School, where in he discussed the technique of appellate judging in Common Law Courts. The second such exposition was at a seminar on the use of legislative history in interpreting New York State and Federal Statue, at the same venue. The discussion dealt with law making and the history of the legislature of this state. In respect of Article III of the Constitution, he stated that Congress had limited the powers conferred by the constitution in respect of resolution of cases. With regard to judicial verdicts, he discussed the statutory interpretation in respect of several cases which had a bearing on the future of the State as well as the Courts. Further, he expressed his discontent in respect of the process of Judicial Review, which results in the failure of the Court in framing an opinion. In this context he cited the case of Majewski v Broadalbin – Perth Control School District. The issues discussed were whether the changes in the workers’ compensation law restricting third party tort-fea ·sor seeking contribution from an injured employee’s employer were prospective or retroactive. Though the statute did not provide a clear answer, the Bill’s sponsor in the assembly proclaimed that it was prospective, while the Governor announced at the Bill’s signing that there would be an appreciable reduction in the insurance premia being paid by employers. Based on this outcome, he opined that judges will have to decide what was intended by such legislation. In his opinion, Judicial Activism has been limited to querying the Congress to explain the meaning of the various statutes. In this connection, there are occasions where regulatory or legislative schemes come under scrutiny and come up short under Constitutional Analysis. Judges have to follow the Federal Sentencing Guidelines. The Supreme Court has heard two cases, U.S.V Baker and U.S.V Fanfan, which more or less signals the end of the sentencing schemes under the Constitution. According to him, the will of Congress does not trump the Constitution. This results in Congress forsaking the guidelines as a discretionary sentencing guide and leaving the task to even up the range of sentences to a law based arbitraryness review. In another case, Campaign for Fiscal Equity V New York, the Constitutionality and Federalism of the State were challenged. In 1995, the Court had ruled that the plaintiff’s complaint did plead a cause of action on State Constitutional Grounds. The Constitutional Standard for that Mandate was that the State must provide a sound basic education to all New York Children. The outcome of this case was that the School funding is based on political expediency and not on educational necessity. According to him the Court had transposed the Constitutional Provision from a general commitment to public education into substantive policy – laden guarantee of educational proficiency that would ultimately drag the Courts into a resource allocation fight with the Legislature. Absence of a Legislative Response to a Judicial Decree, declaring the Constitutional shortcomings of a state education system, the Courts have to manage the State’s Education Funding System; this is a job, which the majority of the fiscal equity noted that the Court had neither the authority, the ability nor the will to do. Richard C Wesley expressed his view that the quasi – legislative/ executive role will strain the Courts’ own intellectual and institutional resources, while providing the Executive with an excuse to usurp the Courts’ Powers. He further, contended that Governing and Judging are two dissimilar things and that the public policy is best formulated by means of public debates. Though the Judiciary has been granted an independent existence by the Constitution, in reality the Legislature controls it. Since Legislature is the most powerful wing of the U.S.Government, according to Wesley if it fails, there is no further recourse. The foregoing discussion illustrates the penchant of the legislature to interfere with the functioning of the judiciary. Whenever, the legislature fails to resolve any problem, the judiciary steps in to rectify the same. However, with the legislature making all out efforts to subjugate the judiciary, there is nothing which can retrieve the situation once the legislation fails (Wesley, n.d). References. Wesley, Richard C. (n.d.). If Legislatures Fail, Who is there to Follow?

Tuesday, August 13, 2019

In the United States, we do not need to plan for retirement. Social Essay

In the United States, we do not need to plan for retirement. Social Security will cover our needs when we are retired - Essay Example People at large now believe that the social security funds are not enough to provide financial shelter to the retired people and one should plan for his retirement without expecting that he will get enough from the national social security fund to fulfil all of his needs of the retired life (Brown et al, p83). The national social security program relies upon the taxes of the existing working force. The danger of the fiscal imbalance always remain associated with the social security funds because the number of retired people eligible to draw the funds anytime exceed the number of the workers paying to the system. This imbalance will cause the social security funds to run in deficit and the retired people will no longer be able to draw the desired amount of funds from the funds. The economic instability drawn by the financial recession and increase in the unemployment within the country has also increased the probabilities that the national security funds will run out few years before it has been projected by the financial experts (Stephen, p1). On average, the social security funds provide $1,076 per month to over 54 million Americans (Brown et al, p83). ... ts of the social security are more than the tax payers and in the coming years it is expected to record more imbalance in the ratio of retired and tax payer people. The government fiscal deficit has been increased to $1.5 trillion in 2011 due to which the funds available to pay the retirees are also expected to shrink in the coming years (Brown et al, p83). The issue of running out of the social security fund is great point of concern for the people in United States because the generally people use to reply upon these funds to meet their needs of the retired life. The social security funds could be deem as source of getting enough for the retired life but as the economy of the country is witnessing transformational changes due to number of factors it could no longer be a wise decision to reply upon the social security funds for the retired life. The people should now focus upon their individual planning so that they could spend their retired life with peace and financial security (Br own et al, p83). When the social security program was initiated in 1980s the fund reached the level of $2.5 trillion surplus within few years and it was expected that it will sufficiently pay out the benefits to the people until 2037. The projected year of running out in deficit is still not much close but the funds are already drained and the social security funds are now not enough to pay funds to all the eligible people until and unless the fund is provided from any other source. The danger of the collapse of the national security funds could not be overlook in the current situation where there is high level of economic uncertainty, instability and unemployment in the country (Megan, p1). It has been reported by most of the credible news sources like Associated Press, BBC and CNCB that

Are the great IGOs (such as the League of Nations or the UN) efficient Essay

Are the great IGOs (such as the League of Nations or the UN) efficient in accomplishing the goals for which they are founded - Essay Example The UN had been criticized for being weak in the light of its growing responsibilities in the globalized world. With the advent of a new playing field brought about by a post-9/11 world, doubts on the capacity of the UN to fulfill its mandate is further amplified. Looking back at history, the incapacity of the League of Nations also resulted in its dissolution. Will the UN meet the same fate? Is it such that the great International Government Organizations (IGOs) such as the League of Nations before and the UN today, are incapable of accomplishing the goals for which they were founded? Or to use the words of de Gaulle, â€Å"is the UN (or any other IGO) a gimmick that should not be relied upon as a useful institution in political decision making† There are numerous criticisms facing the UN. Some of these criticisms are based on historical experiences undergone by the defunct League of Nations. Other criticisms and serious doubts are brought about by apparent impotencies exhibited by the UN in the light of its apparent failures. This paper aims to show that IGOs will for some time be sensitive and responsive to the unique circumstances of their member countries. However, this paper also argues that the inequities among member countries will also be the cause of the failures encountered by IGOs, and thus negate any possibility that an IGO can transform itself throughout long periods to effectively respond to changing times and circumstances.. By the end of World War I, the Allies established the League of Nations to safeguard global peace and prevent the occurrence of another destructive conflict. Among its actions was the institution of the Mandate System with the intent that â€Å"more advanced† countries would be given the responsibility to prepare native populations for self government. However noble the mandate was in theory, it was also seen as a means of dividing the â€Å"spoils† of World War I among the victors. Based on Article 22 of the