Thursday, March 7, 2019

Cocept Analysis: Adaptation

The fantasy of registration Using Sis. Callista Roys posture of reading A Concept Analysis St. Augustines College Exploring the Concept of Adaptation Adaptation has long been descri hunch forward as one of the mean tools of humankind and wolf survival. A chameleon changes its color to hide from a predator, a tyke becomes withdrawn to deal with the death of a loved one or a soldier learns how to walk with a prosthetic limb aft(prenominal) the traumatic amputation of a leg due to injury.All of these authoritys describe a compliance of reading on behalf of the case-by-case in order to deal with a trying situation. According to Sister Callista Roy (2009) accommodation is the butt on and outcome w here(predicate)by intellection and feeling persons as separates or in groups use conscious sensory faculty and choice to create human and purlieual integration (McEwen & Wills, 2011). The purpose of this wallpaper is to explore the supposition of fitting in the hope to bri ng miniature to the use of the term in breast feeding research and practice. This go a mien be done in the form of a pattern depth psychology.A plan analysis is the rigorous process of bringing clarity to the definition of the concepts utilise in science (McEwen & Wills, 2011). The concept analysis process of pedestrian and Avant (2005) take ons selection of a concept, determining the aims or purpose of the concept, identifying all the possible uses of the concept, determining the specify attributes, identification of model cases identifying borderline, relate, contrary, invented and illegitimate cases, identifying antecedents, consequences and lastly be the empirical referents (McEwen & Wills, 2011).The concept analysis process is important because most of nursing theory has been establish on concepts adopted from other disciplines, so it is necessary to explore these concepts to put out their relevance to the nursing profession (McEwen & Wills, 2011). Aim of the Analysi s The aim of this concept analysis of reading is to disc all oer what descriptors of this concept make it more pertinent to nursing practice and research.As geted out by Rodgers and Knafl (2000) the value of discussing concepts is to promote the clarification and refinement of an idea that is int terminate to contribute to the problem solving efforts of a discipline (Holden, 2005). Literature Review of the Theory Adaptation Taylors (1983) cognitive translation theory states that exclusives use positive thought processes as a form of adapting to stressful circumstances. Engaging in mildly positive self-relevant distortions enables an individual to maintain an optimistic expectation, enhance self-esteem and encourage a esthesis of mastery when facing a threatening event (Henselmans et al. 2009). Taylor proposes that these positive thoughts kick downstairs an individual a sense of run into which will then office the individual to experience constructive body process when dealing with a stressful situation. Schkade and Schultz (1992) in their occupational adjustment theory proposed that there is a popular process that individuals go through as they strive for competency on their jobs. There is an interaction with the environment that drives the individual to attain mastery over work related challenges.In this process the individual evaluates their responses to the challenges based on an privileged sense of effectiveness or satisfaction. The self-assessment phase is the only means of evaluating the level of adaptation in this theory. Charmaz (1995) proposed that adaptation for most people is a delaying process of evolution where an altered individual changes to accommodate bodily and working(a) dismissal (Livneh & Parker, 2005). The changes in the individuals result from a recognition of a loss of their former self -image and the adaptation only comes close aft(prenominal) that realization.Yoshida (1993) believes that adaptation through iden tity operator reconstruction only comes about after the individual struggles in the midst of their identity as a disabled person and their identity as their former self (Livneh & Parker, 2011). There is a constant internal struggle to which the outcome ignorenot be predicted. Lewin speaks of a reciprocal, interactive process of adaptation that involves the individual and the environment (Livneh & Parker, 2011). The environment consists of internal and external factors that influence the adaptation process.The internal factors bath include type and severity of illness and/or the individuals concept of self. The external factors include variables such as physical, social and vocational aspects of the external environment. The level of adaptation will regard on the interaction between the individual and these environmental factors. Uses of the Concept Adaptation as defined by Merriam-Webster (2013) is the adaption to environmental conditions, adjustment of a sense organ to the inte nsity or quality of stimulation. Synonyms for adaptation acclimation, accommodation, acclimatization, adjustment and conformation.Charles Darwin theory of natural selection states that organisms adapt to their environment to become improve fitted to survive and that they pass these genes on to the next generation ( ). According to vivid Resources Canada (NRC) adaptation includes activities that are taken before impacts are observed (anticipatory) and after impacts have been felt (reactive). Both anticipatory and reactive adaptation can be planned as a result of deliberate insurance decisions and reactive adaptation can also occur spontaneously (NRC, 2008). defining Attributes Two defining attributes of adaptation are interaction and environment.A common radical that emerged during the review of information researched for this topic was that adaptation occurs after interaction between the individual and the environment. The Roy adaptation model (Roy & Andrews, 1999) viewed the i ndividual as a holistic adaptive system who responds to different stimuli in the environment, he/she processes changes in the environment through emotional channels that involve perception, cultivation, judgment and emotion (Cunningham, 2002). clay sculpture Cases Walker & Avant (2010) state that a model case illustrates or exemplifies the concept and includes demonstrations of all defining ttributes (CCN, 2012). A model case of adaptation could be a previously withdrawn 45 year old womanish uncomplaining with a untried colostomy. The diligent Mrs. X shied away from learning how to care for her colostomy, refusing even to look at the colostomy during colostomy care. Subsequently Mrs. X flat asks appropriate questions, has become more involved even to the point of ever-changing her colostomy appliance. During this process the nurse encourages the patient by asking open ended questions about her feelings, the nurse also assures the patient that when she is ready to talk or lear n someone will be available to answer her questions.Mr. L is a 35 year old newly diagnosed diabetic, who is open and unfastened to diet and lifestyle changes that has become necessary to arrest his blood glucose levels. The adaptation can be seen by the patient taking part in the discussion with his nutritionist, asking appropriate questions and requesting information about resources that will be available to him should he need more support in adjusting to his new lifestyle changes. A contrary case is an practice that does not presentment the attributes of the concept. Ms.B a 25 year old that received a powerful lower limb amputation due to a car accident refuses to take part in physiotherapy. In fact, she is somewhat hostile to the healthcare police squad and does not take part in any discussion about her plan of care and her rehabilitation. Attempts by the nurses to build a therapeutic family relationship by asking open ended questions and sitting with the patient to crack comfort and support are not acknowledged. Related cases, according to Walker & Avant (2010), include most but not all of the attributes that relate to adaptation (CCN, 2012).Safety in many cases can be related to adaptation. Nurses find that they will have to step in and modify a patients environment to aid in the adjustment to an ongoing ailment. This may include dimming the lights, providing a quiet atmosphere and limiting visitors for a patient that has a dissecting aortic aneurysm. The nurse understands that it is important for this individual to have a quieten quiet environment he/she also knows the importance of administering antihypertensive medicament and sedative as needed to achieve an internal environment that is contributory to this persons health.Providing safety may also come in the form of providing a clutter free environment for all patients. This includes ensuring that the bed is in the lowest position, all electrical cords are se reanimated decent and the patie nts belongings and the call light are inside the patients reach. These little changes go a long way in helping people adjust to the strange environment of a hospital room and by performing these tasks the nurse is fulfilling his/her role of promoting adaptation according to Roys Adaptation Model. Antecedents and ConsequencesAccording to Walker and Avant (1995), antecedents are the events or incidents that recover before the concept (Cheng, Foster & Huang, 2003). An antecedent to adaptation is stress, stress which can affect the body as a result of an accident, infection or an illness. The onset of a physical trauma or the diagnosis of a life threatening illness can set into motion a chain of psychosocial experiences, reaction or responses (Livneh & Parker, 2005). The goal of nursing at this point would be to promote adaptation (McEwen & Wills, 2011).The needs of the patient will be assessed and the plan for an appropriate intervention should be formulated. Control over the situatio n maybe beyond the scope of nursing practice however, the goal is for the patient to try to achieve integration with the environment, external or internal. Consequences are the events or incidents that happen as a result of the concept. A consequence of adaptation is that a change has taken place, a change in brain or behavior. A patient that was not able to ambulate without assistant may now be able to walk around their category using crutches or a cane.The newly diagnosed breast cancer patient is no longer fearful because she has developed a positive outlook about her disease. She has started to look for support groups and researching natural intervention to help troth her illness. Taylor (1983) proposed that self -generated control perceptions prevent helplessness and promotes constructive thought and action (Henselmans et al. , 2009). Empirical Referents Walker and Avant (2010) define an empirical referent as a measurement tool or mechanism for the demonstration of the exist ence of the defining attributes of a concept (CCN, 2012).Cognitive adaptation is measured by the individuals feelings of control or mastery over the illness as strong as the individuals positive outlook relating to their illness. One of the tools used to measure optimism is the Life Oriented Test (LOT). It consists of eight items and yields a issue forth score between 0 and 32. An example of a question is I always look on the bright side of life. The participants are asked to rate this statement on a 5 point scale, ranging from 0 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). The Pearlin and Schoolers Mastery Scale is used to assess feelings of control over events.Seven items are used to assess global beliefs of perceived control rather than events being controlled by fate. Five items are phrased in a positive way and two items in a negative way. An example of a statement is I have little control over the things that happen to me. A five point scale is used here also 1 (strongly disag ree) to 5 (strongly agree). Higher points on both scales, indicates a higher level of perceived control or optimism which points to positive adaptation. final stage Adaptation is an innate basic function that all humans and organisms mustiness have to overcome different stressors in life.How one adapts is closely related to our coping strategies. Adaptation can be positive which results in human and environmental integration (McEwen & Wills, 2011). The nurses role in this process is to adapt to the patients needs by performing a thorough assessment to be able to provide the tools needed for the individual to positively adjust to complications that they are experiencing. References Chamberlain College of Nursing. (2012). NR 501 Theoretical basis for advanced nursing practice. Concept Analysis Directions with Scoring Rubric.St Louis, MO Author Chen, S. F. , Foster, R. L. , & Huang, C. Y. (2003). Concept analysis of pain. Tzu Chi Nursing diary 23 Cunningham, D. A. (2005). Adaptation of Roys adaptation model when caring for a group of women coping with menopause. Journal of Community health Nursing 19(1), 49-60 Henselmans, I. , Sanderman, R. , Helgeson, S. V. , de Vries, J. , Smink, A. , & Ranchor, A. V. (2010). Personal control over the cure of breast cancer Adaptiveness, underlying beliefs and correlates. Psycho-Oncology 19 525-534 Holden, L.M. (2005). Complex adaptive systems Concept analysis. Journal of Advanced Nursing 52 (6) 651-657 Honoch, L. , & Randall, M. P. (2005). Psychological adaptation to disablement Perspectives from chaos and complexity theory. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin 17-28 Lorre, G. A. , Schkade, J. K. , & Ishee, J. H. (2004). Content validness of the relative mastery measurement scale A measure of occupational adaptation. Occupational, Participation and Health 24 (3) McEwen, M. , & Wills, E. (2011). Theoretical basis for nursing (3rd ed. . Philadelphia, PA Wolters Kluwer Health. Merriam-Webster. com. (2013). Adaptation. Merriam- Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved from http//www. merriam-webster. com/dictionary/adaptation Stiegelis, H. E. , Hagedoorn, M. , Sanderman, R. , Van der Zee, K. I. , Buunk, B. P. , & Van den Bergh, A. C. M. (2003). Cognitive adaptation A comparison of cancer patients and healthy references. British Journal of Health Psychology 8 303-318 What is Adaptation? (2008) Natural Resources Canada. Retrieved from www. nrcan. gc. ca

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