Sunday, March 31, 2019

Study Of Blue Eye Technology

Study Of Blue Eye TechnologyBlue meat is the applied science to incur electronic reckoners sense and understand tender beings behavior and feelings and react in the proper ways. The blue plaza technology aims at creating computational shapes that harbour perceptual and sensory ability like those of human beings. It uses non-obtrusive sensing method, employing the close to modern video photographic cameras and microphones to identify the exploiters actions finished the use of imparted sensory abilities. The machine support understand what a user wants, where he is looking at, and rase realize his physical or feelingal states.This paper outlines the dust of rules either everyplace view, design features besides hardw ar part. The c erstpt of the technology is the system recognizes through its various staffs the elementary emotions and feelings evinced by the user. This paper brings out the features of this technology, the various methods of large-minded the foreplay houses to the system, design challenges and the emerging trends. Application of this technology in argonas like auto meandering(a), superintendence system etcetera is also dealt with.THE TERM unfor large EYEBLUE in the term stands for Bluetooth, which enables reliable wireless(prenominal) communication.EYE, because the eye transaction enables us to sustain a lot of interesting and authoritative discipline.BASIC inclinationIn general, the blue eye technology aims at creating interactive acts as partner (and friend) to the user.realizes his physical or horny states. outpourings computer human power.provide technical means for monitoring and enter operator physiologic conditionsDesign clevernesser inventions .Create spins with stirred up tidings .Create computational devices with perceptual abilities.BLUE EYE engineeringThe complex solution for human-operator monitoring opthalmic attention monitoringPhysiological conditionOperators position sensing radio set info scholarship victimisation BluetoothReal time user delimit alarm triggeringRecorded entropy playbackGesture deferred payment,Facial recognition,Eye track, lecturing recognition,Doesnt predict nor interfere with operators thoughtsCannot force directly the operator to lead clay OVERVIEWBlue eye system provides technical means for monitoring and recording the operators basic physiologic parameters. The most chief(prenominal) parameter is saccadic activity ( Saccade is a rapid eye jump to a bracing location charge by the conscious attention process), which enables the system to monitor the status of the operators visual attention along with head acceleration, which accompanies large displacement of the visual axis vertebra (saccades larger than 15 degrees). Complex industrial environment flush toilet ca-ca a danger of exposing the operator to toxic substances, which can ask his peakiac, circulatory and pulmonary systems. Thus, on the grounds of l ethysmographic signal taken from the forehead sputter surface, the system computes heart beat rate and blood oxygenation. The blue eye system checks above parameters against ab modal(prenominal) (e.g. a low level of blood oxygenation or a high pulse rate) or undesirable (e.g. a longer period of lowered visual attention) determine and triggers user-defined alarms when necessary. Quite a lot in an emergency situation operators speak to themselves converseing their surprise or stating verbally the problem. indeed, the operators voice, physiological parameters and an overall view of the operating room argon recorded. This helps to remodel the course of operators work and provides entropy for long-term analysis. This system consists of a mobile measuring device and a central analytical system. The mobile device is integrated with Bluetooth module providing wireless interface between sensors worn by the operator and the central building block. ID separate assigned to each of the operators and adequate user profiles on the central building block side provide necessary data personalization so opposite people can use a single mobile device.DESIGN FEATURESIt has a personal argona ne devilrk for touch baseing all the operators and the supervising system. It has devil major unitsDAU (data acquisition unit )CSU (central system unit )The basic block diagram is shown belowDATA ACQUISITION exclusivelyThe DAU consists of the following componentsATMEL 8952 microcontrollerBLUE TOOTH staff supports synchronous voice data transmittingPCM CODEC - apply to transmit operators voice and central system sound feedbackUART -communication between bluetooth module and microcontroller (115200 bps)MAX232 -level shifterALPHAUNUMERIC LCD displayLED indicatorsID CARD interfaceIn creating the hardware part of the DAU a development board is built, which enables the operator to mount, come to and test various peripheral devices cooperating with the microcontroller. During the im plementation of the DAU a piece of software system system is requireed to establish and test Bluetooth connections. Therefore a pricking called BlueDentist is created. The tool provides support for controlling the currently connected Bluetooth device. Its functions arelocal device management (resetting, reading local BD_ADDR, putting in Inquiry/ summon and Inquiry/Page scan modes, reading the list of locally back up features and setting UART speed)connection management (receiving and displaying Inquiry scan results, establishing ACL links, adding SCO connections, performing link authorization procedure, sending test data packets and disconnecting).To test the possibilities and doing of the stay parts such as computer, camera anddatabase software, BlueCapture is created. The tool supports capturing video data from various reference works (USB web-cam, industrial camera) andstoring the data in the MS SQL Server database. Additionally, the covering performs sound recording. Afte r filtering and removing insignificant fragments (i.e. silence) the audio data is brothd in the database. Finally, the political program plays the recorded audiovisual stream. The software is utilise to measure database system performance and to optimize s unaccentedly of the SQL queries (e.g. replacing of correlated SQL queries with arrow operations).Also a simple tool for recording JazzMultisensor measurements is created. The program reads the data victimisation a parallel port and writes it to a file. To program the operators personal ID card we use a standard parallel port, as the EPROMs and the port are both TTL-compliant. A simple dialog-based application helps to accomplish the lying-in.DAU FEATURESThe data acquisition unit has the following features.LightweightRuns on batteries low power inhalationEasy to use does not disturb the operator workingID cards for operator authorizationVoice transmission using hardware PCM codec telephone exchange SYSTEM UNITThe CSU con sists of the following components.CONNECTION module main task to perform low-level blue tooth communicationDATA ANALYSIS MODULE performs the analysis of the raw sensor data in secern to obtain information about operators physiological conditionDATA LOGGER MODULE provides support for storing the monitored data.VISULAIZATION MODULE provides user interface for the supervisorsCSU FEATURESThe central system unit has the following features.AccessverificationSystem maintenanceConnection managementData touchVisualizationData recordingemotive COMPUTINGThe process of do stimulated computers with sensing abilities is known as affective computing.Steps let in-Giving sensing abilitiesDetecting human emotionsRespond properlyASPECTS OF AFFECTIVE COMPUTINGThere are deuce aspects of affective computing braggy the computer the ability to detect emotions andgiving the computer the ability to express emotions.Not only are emotions crucial forrational decision do, tho emotion detection is an i mportant step to an adaptive computer system. An adaptive, happy computer system has been driving efforts to detect a persons emotional state. An important element of incorporating emotion into computing is for productivity for a computer user. By matching a persons emotional state and the context of the expressed emotion, over a period of time the persons personality is being exhibited. Therefore, by giving the computer a longitudinal understanding of the emotional state of its user, the computer could adapt a working style which fits with its users personality. The result of this collaboration could gain productivity for the user.INPUTS CONSIDEREDHeart pulse rateFacial expressionsEye-brows and oral fissure lines in the beginningEye forepartsAs a pointing deviceAlso to determine the emotionVoiceMETHODS1. AFFECT DETECTIONOne way of gaining information from a user non-intrusively is by video. Cameras take over been used to detect a persons emotional state.The basic block diagra m of the seventh cranial nerve expression detection is shown below. surmise ON FACIAL EXPRESSIONBased on a facial expression work, there is a correlation between a persons emotional state and a persons physiological measurements. Paul Ekman, a scientist performed an experiment which elusive participants attached to devices to record certain measurements including pulse, galvanic kowtow response (GSR), temperature, material movement and blood hale. He so recorded the measurements as the participants were instructed to simulate facial expressions which correspondedto the six basic emotions. He defined the six basic emotions as anger, panic, sadness, disgust, joy and surprise. Thus from this experiment it was determined how physiological measures could be used to distinguish various emotional states.The measures taken were GSR, heart rate, skin temperature and general somatic activity (GSA). These data were consequently subject to two analyses. For the first analysis,a multid imensional scaling(MDS) procedure was used to determine the dimensionality of the data.Thus it can be concluded that most of the information is extracted from the position of the eye-brows.Detectiongeometrical facial data extractionBasic emotion-specified facial expression1 2 3 4 5 6disgustfearjoysurpriseSadnessanger2. deceit POINTINGMagic Pointing stands for manual of arms AND GAZE INPUT CASCADED ( wizard(prenominal)) POINTING.This work explores a new direction in utilizing eye discern for computer stimulation. esteem bring in has long been considered as an alternative or potentially superior pointing method for computer input. It is believed that umteen fundamental bounds exist with traditional gaze pointing. In particular, it is unnatural to choke off a perceptual channel such as vision with a push back control task. Therefore an alternative approach of dubbed MAGIC (Manual And Gaze Input Cascaded) pointing is proposed. With such an approach, pointing appears to the user to be a manual task, used for fine manipulation and selection. However, a large portion of the pointer movement is eliminated by warping the cursor to the eye gaze area, whichencompasses the target.Two peculiar(prenominal) MAGIC pointing techniques areConservative magic pointing andLiberal magic pointing.The pros and cons of the two techniques are discussed in silly of both performance data and natural reports.IMPLEMENTATIONThe MAGIC pointing program takes data from both the manual input device (of any type, such as a mouse) and the eye track system running either on the same machine or on another machine connected via serial port. Raw data from an eye tracker can not be directly used for gaze-based fundamental interaction, receivable to commotion from see to it bear on, eye movement jitters, and models taken during saccade (ballistic eye movement) periods. Therefore filters are used.The goal of filter design in general is to experience the best compromise between preser ving signal bandwidth and eliminating friendless noise. In the result of eye tracking, eye information relevant to interaction lies in the fixations. The separate is to select fixation points with minimal delay.Samples collected during a saccade are unwanted and should be avoided. In designing the algorithmic program for picking points of fixation, thetracking system speed (30 Hz) is considered, and that the MAGIC pointing techniques utilize gaze information only once for each new target, probably immediately after a saccade. The filtering algorithm was designed to pick a fixation with token(prenominal) delay by means of selecting two adjacent points over two samples.Advantages of magic pointingThe both the liberal and the conservative MAGIC pointing techniques offer the following potential advantages decline of manual stress and fatigue, since the cross screen long-distance cursor movement is eliminated from manual control.Practical accuracy level. In comparison to traditional slender gaze pointing whose accuracy is pointing fundamentally limited by the nature of eye movement, the MAGIC pointing techniques let the hand complete the task, so they can be as accurate as any other manual input techniques.. A much natural mental model for the user. The user does not cod to be aware of the role of the eye gaze. To the user, pointing go bys to be a manual task, with a cursor conveniently appearing where it needs to be.Speed. Since the need for large magnitude pointing operations is less than with virtuous manual cursor control, it is possible that MAGIC pointing go out be faster than pure manual pointing.Improved subjective speed and ease-of-use. Since the manual pointing premium is smaller, the user whitethorn perceive the MAGIC pointing system to operate faster and more(prenominal) cheerily than pure manual control, even if it operates at the same speed or more slowly.Problems related to magic pointingIn addition to problems with todays eye tracking systems, such as delay, error, and inconvenience, there whitethorn also be about potential human factor disadvantages to the MAGIC pointing techniques we have proposed, including the following1. With the more liberal MAGIC pointing technique, the cursor warping can be active at times, since the cursor moves to the new gaze location whenever the eye gaze moves more than a set distance (e.g., 120 pixels) away from the cursor. This could be particularly distracting when the user is trying to read. It is possible to introduce additional constraint according to the context. For example, when the users eye appears to follow a text reading flesh, MAGIC pointing can be automatically suppressed.2. With the more conservative MAGIC pointing technique, the suspicion of the exact location at which the cursor might appear may force the user, e excessly a novice, to adopt a cumber slightly schema take a touch (use the manual input device to move the cursor), wait (for the cursor to appear) , and move (the cursor to the target manually). Such a strategy may prolong the target acquisition time. The user may have to learn a novel hand-eye coordination pattern to be cost- stiff with this technique. Gaze position reported by eye tracker Eye tracking leaping with 95% confidence True target will be within the circle with 95% probability The cursor is warped to the boundary of the gaze area, along the initial actuation vector Previous cursor position, far from target Initial manual actuation vector3. With pure manual pointing techniques, the user, knowing the current cursor location, could conceivably perform his motor acts in parallel to visual count. Motor action may hook on as soon as the users gaze settles on a target. With MAGIC pointing techniques, the motor action computation (decision) cannot start until the cursor appears. This may waste the time saving gained from the MAGIC pointing techniques reduction of movement amplitude. Clearly, experimental (implementati on and empirical) work is needed to validate, refine, or invent alternative MAGIC pointing techniques. wooersuitor stands for Simple User Interface Tracker. Computers would have been much more powerful, had they gained perceptual and sensory abilities of the living beings on the earth. What needs to be developed is an familiar(p) relationship between the computer and the humans. And the Simple User Interest Tracker (suitor) is a revolutionary approach in this direction. By observe the Webpage a netizen is browsing, the wooer can help by fetching more information at histo desktop. By simply noticing where theusers eyes focus on the computer screen, the SUITOR can be more precisein determining his field of study of interest. It can even deliver relevant informationto a handheld device. The success lies in how much the suitor can be cozy the user. A cue to exploit nonverbal cues to create more effective user interfaces c is gaze-the direction in which a person is looking. A new te chnique for tracking a persons eyes has been created and this gaze-tracking technology has been incarnate into two prototypes. One, called SUITOR (Simple User Interest Tracker), fills a scrolling ticker on a computer screen with information related to the users current task. SUITOR knows where the user is looking, what applications he/she is running, and what Web pages the user may be browsing.For example, If a Web page about IBM, is being read for instance and the system presents the latest stock price or business news stories that could affect IBM. If the headline off the ticker is read, it pops up the story in a browser window. If the story is also read then , it adds related stories to the ticker. Thats the whole idea of an attentive system-one that attends to what you are doing, typing, reading, so that it can attend to your information needs.EMOTION MOUSEOne goal of human computer interaction (HCI) is to make an adaptive, smart computer system. A non-invasive way to obtain in formation about a person is through touch. People use their computers to obtain, store and manipulate data using their computer. In order to start creating smart computers, the computer must start gaining information about the user. The proposed method for gaining user information through touch is via a computer input device, the mouse. From the physiological data obtained from the user, an emotional state may be determined which would then be related to the task the user is currently doing on the computer. all over a period of time, a user model will be built in order to gain a sense of the users personality. The kitchen range of the project is to have the computer adapt to the user in order to create a better working environment where the user is more productive.. One obvious place to put sensors is on the mouse. Through observing normal computer usage (creating and editing documents and surfing the web),people spend approximately 1/3 of their total computer time tactile sensa tion their input device. Because of the incredible amount of time spent cutaneous senses an input device, the happening of detecting emotion through touch can be explored. lift is embedded with sensors that can sense the physiological attributes likeTemperatureBody pressurePulse rateTouching style etc.The computer determines the users emotional states from these inputs.BLUE EYE EMOTIONAL MOUSEsensors in the mouse ,sense the physiological attributes which are correlated to emotions using correlation model-by simply touching the mouse ,the computer will be able to determine a persons emotional state.BLUE EYE enabled TELEVISION could become active when the user makes an eye contact incorporated.5. spoken language RECOGNITIONIt is important to consider the environment in which the speech recognition system has to work. The grammar used by the speaker, noise level, noise type, position of the microphone, and speed and manner of the users speech are some factors that may affect the q uality of speech recognition . Artificial intelligence comes into place where an automatic call-handling system is used without employing any telephone operator.THE TECHNOLOGYArtificial intelligence (AI) involves two basic ideas. First, it involves studying the thought processes of human beings. Second, it deals with representing those processes via machines (like computers, robots, etc).AI is behavior of a machine, which, if performed by a human being, would be called intelligent. It makes machines smarter and more useful, and is lessExpensive than natural intelligence. Natural language processing ( human language technology)refers to artificial intelligence methods of communicating with a computer in a natural language like English. The main objective of a NLP program is to understand input and initiate action. The input playscripts are scanned and matched against internally stored known words. Identification of a key word causes some action to be taken. In this way, one can comm unicate with the computer in ones language. No special commands or computer language are required. There is no need to enter programs in a special language for creating software.The user speaks to the computer through a microphone, which, in used a simple system may contain a minimum of three filters. The more the number of filters used, the higher the probability of accurate recognition. Presently, switched capacitor digital filters are used becausethese can be custom-built in integrated circuit form. These are smaller and cheaper than active filters using operable amplifiers. The filter output is then fed to the ADC to translate the analogue signal into digital word. TheADC samples the filter outputs many times a second. Each sample represents different amplitudes of the signal .Evenly spaced vertical lines represent the amplitude of the audio filter output at the instant of sampling. Each economic value is then converted to a binary program number proportional to the amplitude of the sample. A central processor unit (CPU) controls the input circuits that are fed by the ADCS. A large RAM (random access memory) stores all the digital values in a buffer area.The pictures represent the basic schemes of the speech recognition process.This digital information, representing the spoken word, is now accessed by the CPU to process it further. The normal speech has a frequency range of 200 Hz to 7 kHz. Recognizing a telephone call is more difficult as it has bandwidth limitation of 300 Hz to3.3 kHz. As explained earlier, the spoken words are urbane by the filters and ADCs. The binary re origination of each of these words becomes a usher or standard, against which the future words are compared. These templates are stored in the memory. at a time the storing process is completed, the system can go into its active mode and is competent of identifying spoken words. As each word is spoken, it is converted into binary resembling and stored in RAM. The computer then starts searching and compares the binary input pattern with the templates. t is to be noted that even if the same speaker dialog the same text, there are always slightvariations in amplitude or loudness of the signal, pitch, frequency variety, time gap, etc. Due to this reason, there is never a perfect match between the template and binary input word. The pattern matching process indeed uses statistical techniques and is designed to look for the best fit.The values of binary input words are subtracted from the corresponding values in the templates. If both the values are same, the difference is zero and there is perfect match. If not, the subtraction produces some difference or error. The smaller the error, the better is the match. When the best match occurs, the word is identified and displayed onthe screen or used in some other manner. The search process takes a considerable amount of time, as the CPU has to make many comparisons before recognition occurs. This necessitates use of very high-speed processors. A large RAM is also required as even though a spoken word may last only a few hundred milliseconds, but the same is translated into many thousands of digital words. It is important to note that alignment of words and templates are to be matched correctly in time, before computing thesimilarity score. This process, termed as dynamic time warping, recognizes that different speakers pronounce the same words at different speeds as sanitary as elongate different parts of the same word. This is important for theSpeaker-independent recognizers.APPLICATIONS OF SPEECH RECOGNITIONOne of the main benefits of speech recognition system is that it lets user do other works simultaneously. The user can concentrate on observation and manual operations, and still control the machinery by voice input commands. Another major application of speech processing is in array operations. Voice control of weapons is an example. With reliable speech recognition equipment, pilot s can supply commands and information to the computers by simply speaking into their microphones-they dont have to use their transfer for this purpose. Another good example is a radiologist scanning hundreds of X-rays, ultrasonograms, CT scans and simultaneously dictating conclusions to a speech recognition system connected to word processors. The radiologist can focus his attention on the images rather than indite the text. Voice recognition could also be used on computers for making airline and hotel reservations. A user requires simply to state his needs, to make reservation, invalidate a reservation, or make enquiries about schedule.6. EYE TRACKEREye tracker is a device which tracks the movement of eye. This system is much more compact and reliable. on hand(predicate) mercenary systems, rely on a single light source that is positioned either off the camera axis, or on-axis. Illumination from an off-axis source (or ambient illumination) generates a dark pupil image. When th e light source is placed on-axis with the camera optical axis, the camera is able to detect the light reflected from the interior of the eye, and the image of the pupil appears blinding. This effect is often seen as the red-eye in flashing photographs when the flash is close to the camera lens.The Almaden system of eye tracking uses two near infrared (IR) time multiplexed light sources, composed of two sets of IR LEDs, which were synchronized with the camera frame rate. One light source is placed very close to the cameras optical axis and is synchronized with the even frames. unmatchable frames are synchronized with the second light source, positioned off axis. The two light sources are calibrated to provide approximately equivalent whole-scene illumination. Pupil detection is realized by means of subtracting the dark pupil image from the impertinent pupil image. After thresholding the difference, the largest connected component is identified as the pupil. This technique signif icantly increases the robustness and reliability of the eye tracking system.The Almaden eye tracker is shown in the regard.The above picture an ON AXIS infrared illuminationThe figure explains the OFF AXIS infrared illumination.APPLICATIONS1. Surveillance systemsA large retailers have implemented surveillance systems that record and interpret customer movements, using BlueEye software.BlueEye software makes sense of what the cameras see to answer key questions for retailers, including, How many shoppers ignored a promotion? How many stopped? How long did they stay? Did their faces register tiresomeness or delight? How many reached for the item and put it in their obtain carts? Blue Eye works by tracking pupil, eyebrow and mouth movement. When monitoring pupils, the system uses a camera and two infrared light sources placed inside the product display. One light source is reorient with the cameras focus the other is slightly off axis. When the eye looks into the camera-aligned light , the pupil appears bright to the sensor, and the software registers the customers attention. This is way it capturesthe persons income and buying preferences. BlueEye is actively been incorporated in some of the leading retail outlets.2. Automobile industryBlue Eye can be applied in the automobile industry. By simply touching a computer input device such as a mouse, the computer system is designed to be able to determine a persons emotional state. For cars, it could be useful to help with critical decisions like I know you want to get into the fast lane, but Im afraid I cant do that. You too upset right now and therefore assist in driving safely.3. Video gamesWe could see its use in video games where, it could give individual challenges to customers playing video games. Typically targetingcommercial business. The integration of Childrens toys, technologies and computers is enabling new play experiences that were not commercially feasible until recently. The Intel Play QX3 Computer Microscope, the Me2Cam with Fun Fair, and the Computer Sound Morpher are commercially available smart toy products developed by the Intel Smart hornswoggle Lab in. One theme that is common across these PC-connected toys is that users interact with them using a combination of visual, audible and tactile input output modalities. The presentation will provide an overview of the interaction design of these products and pose some rummy challenges faced by designers and engineers of such experiences targeted at novice computer users, videlicet young children.4. An alternate to keyboardThe familiar and useful come from things we recognize. Many of our favourite things appearance communicate their use they show the change in their value though patina. As technologists we are now poised to imagine aworld where computing objects communicate with us in-situ where we are. We use our looks, feelings, and actions to give the computer the experience it needs to work with us. Keyboards and mi ce will not continue to dominate computer user interfaces. Keyboard input will be replaced in large measure by systems that know what we want and require less explicit communication. Sensors are gaining fidelity and ubiquity to record presence and actions sensors will notice when we enter a space, sit down, lie down,Pump iron, etc. Pervasive infrastructure is recording it.5. A better future scenario original interfaces between computers and humans can present information vividly, but have no sense of whether that information is everViewed or understood. In contrast, new real-time computer vision techniques for perceiving people allows us to create Face-responsive Displays and perceptive Environments, which ca

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